A complete guide for SSL, TLS and certificates

Latest — Sep 21, 2023

Information security (IS) courses are needed not only for IS department employees and not even only for certain employees of a company but for everyone. Information security training in today's world, where virtually all areas of life have been digitized, should be on par with fire safety and other fundamental rules that employees are required to observe in the workplace.

Even the most ordinary employee today has access to corporate email or other means of communication within the company, as well as internal information systems and archives. If they do not know the basic rules of cyber hygiene or do not update them in a timely manner, they can become a springboard for attackers to access sensitive company data.

In this article, we will discuss the importance of cyber hygiene in the enterprise, why this knowledge needs to be updated, the pros and cons of in-house and third-party cyber security courses, and what should be included in a cyber hygiene course.

Why cyber hygiene training matters

Almost every aspect of modern business operations has been transformed by the digital revolution. From communication to data storage, the modes have shifted from tangible to virtual platforms. This transition has been a boon in many ways. However, the virtual world, much like its physical counterpart, is not devoid of threats.

Previously, threats were physically visible, like a fire, necessitating measures like fire drills. Today, threats are more intangible, often lurking behind an innocent-looking email or website link. This paradigm shift means that cyber safety has become as crucial as any other workplace safety protocol. It is here that cyber hygiene courses play a significant role.

Most employees, regardless of their designation or role, interface with digital tools like emails, messaging platforms, and digital databases. This widespread access to digital tools, while indispensable, poses a significant risk. If employees are not equipped with basic cyber hygiene knowledge, even unintentional actions can expose the entire organization to threats.

A deep dive into the essentials of cyber hygiene training

Every company has a diverse set of employees, from those in HR and marketing to IT professionals, legal experts, and database managers. While their roles vary, their interaction with the company's IT infrastructure is common, necessitating cyber hygiene training for all in the following categories:

Awareness of threats. The digital realm has a vast array of threats, from phishing attacks to malware and deceptive social engineering tactics. Comprehensive training ensures employees can identify these threats, mitigating potential risks.

Password protocols. A strong password can often be the first line of defense against cyber-attacks. Employees need guidance on creating robust passwords and the benefits of two-factor authentication.

Data protection. Data is often referred to as the 'new oil.' In a business context, data can include everything from company secrets to customer details. Understanding the importance of data and the protocols for its protection is paramount.

Incident management. Not every threat can be prevented. However, swift action can often limit the damage. Employees should be trained to recognize unusual activities and report them promptly.

The in-house vs. third-party training dilemma

Recognizing the need for training is only the beginning. The subsequent challenge is determining the optimal delivery method. The question arises: should businesses lean on their established in-house IT teams, or would it be wiser to seek the expertise of external professionals?

When considering the Advantages of Engaging External Specialists, several factors stand out:

Proficiency. Firms in the cybersecurity domain naturally offer a reservoir of specialized knowledge. Their immersion in the field ensures that they bring a high degree of expertise to the table.

Bespoke solutions. Each business has its nuances. Recognizing this, external specialists are adept at fashioning strategies that are uniquely tailored, focusing on a company's specific requirements and vulnerabilities tied to their industry.

State-of-the-art tools. Another compelling reason to consider them is their familiarity with the latest in the cybersecurity landscape. These experts have their fingers on the pulse, utilizing cutting-edge tools and being aware of evolving threat scenarios. This ensures training remains pertinent and forward-thinking.

Yet, it's essential to balance these benefits with potential drawbacks. Among the challenges of relying on external expertise are the costs involved, which can stretch the budget, especially for larger organizations. There's also the concern that an external perspective might miss nuances inherent to a company's internal processes and culture.

On the other hand, the Benefits of Internal Training are manifold:

Personalization. An internal approach offers a distinct advantage in its adaptability. Companies can sculpt the training, ensuring it's laser-focused on their infrastructure and unique challenges.

Autonomy. Having in-house training offers an unparalleled level of control. Every stage, from conception to delivery, remains under the company's purview.

The economic perspective. While the outset might require considerable investment, the long-term financial implications of in-house training can often skew towards being more economical.

Yet, as with all strategies, there are inherent challenges to consider. Relying solely on in-house capabilities can sometimes lead to gaps in expertise. Limited resources might also become a constraint, and the time commitment to design and implement robust training modules shouldn't be underestimated.

Ensuring periodic refreshers

Experts recommend holding awareness courses at least once a year to update employees' knowledge and skills. Whenever new technologies are introduced or new security threats emerge, separate training should be conducted. This is to ensure that knowledge is up-to-date and to avoid compromising the effectiveness of the company's defenses.

Employees who have already taken a full course do not need to retake the same course every year. Testing can be done to determine if the employee has lost knowledge, as well as new training on updates and new attack techniques. For those employees who have forgotten some of the topics and have difficulty with them, a shortened version of the training can be scheduled. Also, knowledge should be updated after a cyber incident and a case study should be conducted.

The bottom line

Cybersecurity today has become an important part of human security. While in the past it was more common to steal money in the underground or on the street, today it is increasingly being done online. Whereas in the past, attackers only had physical opportunities to harm a business, today any company can be attacked online.

Statistically, the most common cause of a cyberattack is human error. That's why employee cyber hygiene training is the foundation of all the basics in a company's information security. No matter how advanced anti-viruses are installed, no matter how professional the IS department is, one small mistake by an ordinary manager and the company's database is in the hands of attackers or a malicious program enters the company's network.

Regular sessions on cyber security not only prevent such incidents but can also help raise threat awareness and strengthen the security culture of an organization.

The necessity of cyber hygiene training in today's digital world

Sep 18, 2023 — 4 min read

Augmented Reality (AR) has made a huge impact on various sectors, ranging from gaming and entertainment to healthcare and industrial applications. As AR technologies evolve, concerns regarding their safety are becoming more prominent. This article analyzes the safety aspects of AR technologies through various lenses — user health, data security, and public safety.

User health

One of the foremost concerns regarding AR technology is its impact on user health. Extended usage of AR glasses or headsets can lead to eye strain, fatigue, and in severe cases, altered perception of the real world. For instance, Microsoft’s HoloLens, a pioneering AR headset, initially faced criticism for causing discomfort during extended use. Manufacturers have since been focusing on reducing weight and improving ergonomics. Moreover, as AR applications can be very immersive, there's a risk of physical accidents due to users not being fully aware of their surroundings. Niantic’s Pokemon Go, an AR game, reported several accidents where users, engrossed in the game, inadvertently put themselves in danger. To counter this, developers are now integrating real-world awareness features in applications to alert users of potential hazards.

Data security

As AR technologies often require access to sensitive data, such as user location and preferences, ensuring data security is imperative. Cyber-attacks aimed at AR devices can compromise personal information and in cases of industrial applications, trade secrets. For instance, the AR application Wikitude, which provides information about nearby locations, requires access to the user's location data. A breach could reveal sensitive information about a user’s movements. To mitigate such risks, companies are employing end-to-end encryption and robust authentication methods. Also, adherence to data protection laws such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is essential.

Public safety

AR technologies have the potential to impact public safety. For instance, the use of AR in automobiles for navigation and information display should not divert the driver’s attention and contribute to accidents. Furthermore, as AR becomes prevalent in public spaces, such as shopping malls or airports, ensuring that AR content does not create panic or confusion is vital. In the automotive industry, companies like Hyundai are integrating AR in their Head-Up Displays (HUDs) to ensure that the information is non-intrusive and genuinely aids the driver without causing distractions.

Regulatory scrutiny

Regulatory bodies worldwide are keeping a close watch on AR technologies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for example, is actively involved in regulating AR devices used in healthcare. AR applications in surgeries and diagnostics should comply with safety and efficacy standards. Additionally, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) may also step in to ensure that AR advertising does not mislead or harm consumers.

Social implications

It's also crucial to consider the social implications of AR. For instance, Google Glass faced backlash due to privacy concerns, as people around the wearer were unaware if they were being recorded. AR technologies must respect social norms and privacy expectations. Users should be informed and in control of the data that AR applications access and share.

The industrial aspect

In industries, AR is used for training, maintenance, and complex assembly tasks. While it enhances productivity, it is vital to ensure that AR does not compromise worker safety. Lockheed Martin, an American global aerospace, defense, and security company, employs AR for assembly and manufacturing processes. They have integrated safety protocols that make sure that AR usage complies with workplace safety norms.

Future directions

To ensure that AR technologies remain safe as they continue to evolve, a multi-pronged approach is needed. This includes continuous evaluation and improvements in hardware design, stringent data security measures, adherence to regulatory norms, and public awareness campaigns. The development of international safety standards for AR technologies could also be instrumental in ensuring a globally accepted safety benchmark.

Human factors

One aspect that needs further investigation is how AR affects human psychology and behavior. In educational environments, for example, AR can be a powerful tool. However, over-reliance might impede critical thinking and problem-solving skills if not implemented thoughtfully. It's essential that educationalists and psychologists work together with technology developers to create AR content that enhances learning while nurturing essential life skills.

Economic concerns

The economic implications of AR should not be ignored. As industries adopt AR for various applications, the job market dynamics are likely to change. On one hand, AR can enhance productivity and create new avenues for employment, but on the other hand, it can also render certain jobs obsolete. Governments and policymakers need to be proactive in identifying such trends and ensuring that the workforce is prepared to adapt to these changes.

Privacy paradox

The privacy concerns associated with AR are particularly challenging. As AR devices become more integrated into our daily lives, the line between what is private and what is not begins to blur. For example, future AR glasses might be capable of facial recognition and instant background checks. While this could be useful in certain scenarios, it raises significant ethical and privacy concerns. In this context, robust and adaptable privacy laws are crucial. Users should have the autonomy to control the data they share and understand the implications.

Ethical considerations

Beyond privacy, there are broader ethical questions to consider. As AR can manipulate the perception of reality, there is potential for misuse. The deepfake technology, for instance, can be combined with AR to create hyper-realistic forgeries that can deceive individuals. This could have serious implications in terms of misinformation, fraud, and personal safety. Ethical guidelines and regulations that specifically address such concerns are required.

Digital divide

As AR technologies advance, there is also a risk of widening the digital divide. Those who have access to these technologies may have significant advantages in terms of education, employment, and social opportunities compared to those who don’t. Ensuring that AR technologies are accessible and affordable is an important societal challenge that needs addressing.


AR technologies are a double-edged sword. On one side, they hold immense potential in enhancing our capabilities and experiences; on the other, they bring along a host of concerns pertaining to health, data security, public safety, ethics, and social equity. As technology continues to evolve, a multidisciplinary approach involving technologists, psychologists, lawmakers, ethicists, and the public is essential in ensuring that the development of AR is guided by principles that prioritize human safety and well-being. The road ahead should be paved with innovation, but caution should be the guiding light.

How safe are AR technologies?

Sep 13, 2023 — 4 min read

In the modern, fast-moving era, mobile banking has emerged as the go-to banking method for a vast majority. The allure of accessing your bank account from any location at any moment has indeed contributed to its widespread adoption. Yet, this ease of access is not without its drawbacks, primarily in the form of potential security breaches in mobile apps.

Mobile banking applications have turned into a hotspot for cybercriminals, incessantly seeking opportunities to exploit any weak points present in these apps. A security infringement in a mobile banking app can have catastrophic repercussions, affecting not only the individual user but also the banking institution at large.

In this article, we delve into the prevalent security threats that mobile banking apps are prone to, and the preventative measures that can be adopted to counteract these threats. But first, let's delve into the reasons behind the susceptibility of banking apps to such threats.

What makes banking apps prone to attacks?

The popularity of mobile banking apps among cybercriminals is hardly surprising. These apps harbor confidential data, including account details and personal identification information, which can be manipulated to siphon off funds or perpetrate identity fraud. Moreover, the extensive user base of these apps globally makes them a lucrative target for cyber assaults. While mobile banking apps offer a seamless user experience, they inadvertently create substantial security loopholes for both the users and the financial entities involved.

The security gaps in banking apps can facilitate unauthorized access to user accounts, data theft, and unauthorized fund transfers, among other issues. Cybercriminals might employ phishing schemes or other social engineering strategies to deceive users into disclosing confidential information or installing malware on their devices. Furthermore, these security lapses can tarnish the reputation of financial organizations. A data leak or other security incidents can diminish customer confidence and harm the brand's image. Several factors contribute to these risks, including:

Complexity. Contemporary banking apps are laden with a plethora of features aimed at enhancing user convenience. However, this complexity also escalates the difficulty in securing the apps, as each new feature potentially introduces new vulnerabilities.

Third-party integrations. A significant number of mobile banking apps depend on third-party code libraries and frameworks for functionalities like payment processing and data storage. These components, although handy, can pose security threats if not adequately scrutinized for vulnerabilities.

User conduct. Users can inadvertently augment the vulnerability of banking apps by opting for weak passwords, reusing passwords across various accounts, or neglecting timely security updates.

Indeed, these elements collectively render banking apps a lucrative target for attackers. Therefore, it is imperative for financial institutions to fortify their mobile apps to safeguard user data and assets. Having understood the vulnerabilities, let's now explore the specific threats that mobile apps are exposed to.

Identifying common vulnerabilities in banking apps

Cybercriminals are perpetually scouting for weaknesses in these apps to exploit and gain unauthorized access to user accounts. Despite the security protocols in place to shield user data, here are some prevalent vulnerabilities that could undermine mobile banking security:

Inadequate data protection. Mobile banking apps sometimes store sensitive details like user credentials and transaction histories on the device itself. If not encrypted or securely stored, this data can be an easy target for attackers.

Interception attacks. Man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks happen when a hacker intercepts the communication between the user's device and the app's server, allowing them to view and alter the transmitted data, including login details and financial transactions.

Weak authentication protocols. Insufficient authentication methods, such as basic passwords or lack of multi-factor authentication, can facilitate easy access to user accounts for attackers. Hence, robust lockout systems, along with multi-factor authentication, should be implemented to prevent brute-force attacks.

Service sharing. Mobile banking apps sometimes share services with other apps on a device, creating potential security risks if those apps are susceptible to attacks.

Flawed encryption techniques. Encryption is vital for safeguarding sensitive data. However, if a banking app employs weak or improperly implemented encryption algorithms, it can be easily bypassed by attackers. Code Manipulation Attackers might alter the app's code by adding or modifying malicious code, enabling them to access confidential data or seize control of the app.

Exploiting app vulnerabilities. Attackers might exploit vulnerabilities in the app itself, arising from insecure coding practices or outdated software components. A notable instance is the 2016 incident where hackers siphoned off $81 million from the Bangladesh Central Bank by exploiting a flaw in the SWIFT payment system utilized by the bank.

These vulnerabilities can severely compromise mobile banking security, potentially leading to financial losses and identity theft. Hence, it is vital for app developers to establish stringent security protocols.

How to fortify your mobile banking apps?

To guarantee the integrity of mobile banking apps, it is essential to adopt potent security strategies. In this segment, we will outline some of the most effective security protocols to shield against common app vulnerabilities:

Data encryption. Encrypting data is a potent security strategy that renders the data unintelligible to those without the decryption key, thereby thwarting attempts to misuse encrypted sensitive data.

Multi-factor authentication (MFA). MFA necessitates users to furnish multiple forms of verification before accessing their accounts, adding an additional security layer to mobile banking apps.

Application strengthening. Application strengthening involves altering the app's code to hinder reverse engineering attempts. This includes code obfuscation, data encryption, and incorporating anti-tampering mechanisms, making it challenging for attackers to retrieve sensitive data or alter the app.

Frequent updates. Regular updates to mobile banking apps are essential to address any existing security gaps. These updates often encompass bug resolutions and security enhancements, urging users to keep their apps updated to fend off emerging threats.

It is vital for top-tier management to recognize the significance of implementing robust security protocols in mobile banking apps. This not only safeguards customer data but also preserves the brand's reputation. A data breach can incur substantial financial and reputational losses. Hence, utilizing platforms like GuardRails can facilitate easier vulnerability detection and rectification, streamlining the process for both security and development teams.


While mobile banking apps have transformed financial management, they have introduced significant security concerns. Given the growing reliance on mobile apps for banking transactions, safeguarding mobile banking security is paramount to prevent financial and reputational damage. It is incumbent upon both individuals and organizations to comprehend the risks and adopt necessary precautions against potential threats. Banks and financial institutions must establish robust security protocols to protect customer data and finances. We have highlighted some prevalent banking app vulnerabilities and potential mitigation strategies. Regular security assessments, staff training, and customer awareness are crucial to maintaining a resilient mobile banking security stance. By adopting these strategies, banks can substantially diminish the risk of cyber-attacks, safeguarding customer assets and data, and ensuring that the convenience of mobile banking does not compromise security.

The price of accessibility: unveiling the greatest security hazards in mobile banking applications

Sep 11, 2023 — 3 min read

In the interconnected world of the 21st century, social media platforms have seamlessly integrated into our daily lives. They have revolutionized the way we communicate, share information, and even conduct business. These platforms, while fostering global connections and instant communication, also present a double-edged sword, especially for corporate entities. The delicate balance between accessibility and security is a tightrope that many companies grapple with, often finding themselves at a crossroads.

The allure and perils of unrestricted access

The digital age has ushered in an era where information is at our fingertips. The modern employee, driven by a desire to stay connected and informed, often finds the allure of unrestricted access to social media hard to resist. While tools like anonymizers, VPNs, and TOR provide gateways to this vast world, they also inadvertently open Pandora's box of cyber threats. These backdoors, often overlooked, can be exploited by seasoned cybercriminals, leading to catastrophic data breaches, significant financial losses, and irreparable damage to reputations. This begs the question: at what cost does this unrestricted access come?

The digital footprint

Every click, post, like, share, or comment on social media platforms contributes to an extensive digital trail. This trail, visible to anyone with the right tools, can be a goldmine for cybercriminals. By meticulously combing through this data, malicious entities can construct detailed profiles, targeting not just individuals but entire corporate hierarchies. The weaponization of this information can manifest in various sinister ways, from spear-phishing campaigns targeting specific employees to broader, more devastating attacks on a company's digital infrastructure. The depth and breadth of this footprint often go unnoticed until it's too late.

Historical context: lessons from past breaches

History is replete with examples that underscore the vulnerabilities tied to social media. The 2013 breach of the Associated Press's Twitter account serves as a grim reminder. Hackers disseminated false information about a terrorist attack, causing widespread panic and a temporary stock market crash. Similarly, the 2011 attack on RSA, a renowned system developer, highlighted the dangers of seemingly innocuous phishing emails. These emails, sourced from data harvested from social media, contained malicious links that, once clicked, wreaked havoc on the company's systems. More recent incidents, like the one faced by Elara Caring in 2020, further emphasize the ever-present and evolving nature of these threats.

The multifaceted nature of social media threats

The digital realm is vast, and so is the spectrum of threats emanating from social media. Phishing attacks, where cybercriminals don the guise of trustworthy entities, are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Corporate espionage, where competitors or rogue actors siphon confidential information for financial or strategic advantage, adds another layer of complexity. Even actions that seem benign on the surface, like an employee sharing a casual photo from their workstation, can inadvertently disclose confidential information. The ripple effects of such breaches can be far-reaching, affecting not just the immediate organization but also its stakeholders.

Towards a comprehensive security strategy

In the face of such multifaceted threats, a piecemeal approach to security won't suffice. Companies need a comprehensive, holistic strategy. This involves regular employee training not only to equip employees with the tools to recognize potential threats, such as phishing emails but also to instill a culture of vigilance and best practices for online behavior. The nuances of password security, the importance of two-factor authentication, and the need for restricted access rights are foundational pillars that need to be emphasized.

However, human vigilance alone isn't enough. The rapid advancements in technology have armed companies with powerful tools like AI and machine learning. These technologies, capable of analyzing vast datasets swiftly, offer a proactive approach to security. They can detect anomalies, identify potential threats in their nascent stages, and even block malicious attempts, such as phishing emails before they reach their intended targets.

The collaboration further strengthens this security framework. In the vast expanse of the digital realm, no company stands alone. By forging strategic alliances with external partners, including cybersecurity firms and industry peers, companies can share insights, pool resources, and present a united front against cyber threats. This collaborative ethos ensures that knowledge and expertise are continuously exchanged, enhancing the collective security posture.

Lastly, adaptability is key. The digital threats of today might not be the same as those of tomorrow. A robust security strategy is dynamic, evolving in response to new challenges and threats. Feedback mechanisms, where employees can promptly report suspicious activities, coupled with regular audits and assessments, ensure that security measures remain agile and ahead of potential threats.


The intricate dance between social media and corporate security is a testament to the challenges and opportunities of the digital age. While the threats are formidable, a proactive, informed, and collaborative approach can keep them at bay. In this ever-evolving landscape, security is not just an IT concern; it's a collective responsibility. By fostering a culture of awareness, vigilance, and collaboration, corporations can navigate the digital realm confidently, reaping its benefits while ensuring their assets remain secure.

The digital dilemma: navigating social media's threats to corporate security

Sep 6, 2023 — 4 min read

Within the spheres of information systems and software development, the role of test servers is undeniably essential. Test servers are purpose-built environments designed to experiment, examine new features, and test software updates without posing any threat to the stability and continuity of the main operational systems.

However, the nature and purpose of these test servers inherently introduce an array of information security risks. In this more extensive discussion, we will delve deeper into the central cybersecurity issues associated with the operation of test servers, and propose potential countermeasures and protective strategies.

Unpacking the core problem

A prevalent misconception among developers and IT professionals is that test servers represent an insignificant component within the larger company infrastructure. Consequently, they often exhibit a level of nonchalance towards these servers' security, believing that any attack, compromise, or system failure will not impact the primary infrastructure's operation.

Simultaneously, the Information Security (IS) departments within organizations often relegate test server security to a lower priority, given the servers' perceived secondary status compared to the primary, production-grade infrastructure, which typically enjoys robust technical and organizational protection measures.

However, despite this dismissive attitude, test servers frequently handle sensitive data during the testing and debugging process. This data can range from main infrastructure configuration elements to the personal data of clients or employees. The result is a precarious situation where developers are utilizing sensitive data in an environment with minimal control and oversight, and the IS department is without the necessary resources and technical wherewithal to guarantee the security of this process. Given this scenario, an incident becomes not a matter of if, but a matter of when it will occur.

Incidents of note involving test servers

Due to their generally weaker protection measures compared to the main infrastructure, test servers can become attractive targets for cyber attackers. Malevolent actors can exploit these servers as a backdoor into the main infrastructure or gain unauthorized access to sensitive company data. This risk is clearly exemplified in several high-profile incidents:

Uber, in 2016, was subjected to a significant security breach related to their test server. Intruders were successful in accessing Uber's GitHub repository that stored archived files of application code. As a direct consequence of this incident, the perpetrators were able to access sensitive data, including comprehensive user and driver details.

Facebook, in 2013, fell victim to a data breach caused by insecure configuration and setup of a test server. The attackers managed to access a test server loaded with various development and testing tools. As a result, the personal data of over 6 million users were compromised, showcasing the potential harm from such incidents.

British Airways, in 2018, suffered a security breach that impacted their test server. Attackers intercepted data, including the personal and financial information of over 380,000 customers, by injecting malicious code into the airline's test server.

These incidents not only underscore the fact that the issues surrounding test servers can affect a wide array of industries but also emphasize that a security breach does not always necessitate an external hacker or intruder.

Pressure points and their protective measures

Test servers are generally configured to favor the IT department's ease of use, thus inadvertently leading to conventional security issues such as weak passwords and a lack of access restrictions. While such configurations might provide comfort to developers, they pose serious implications for overall information security. Some common issues related to test server security are:

Data sensitivity. It's common for companies to overlook the necessity to disguise or mask data used for testing. Similarly, it's not unusual for passwords for the test infrastructure to remain unchanged for extended periods.

Protection levels. Regular servers typically have more robust protection measures such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and intrusion prevention systems. On the contrary, test servers, which are meant for simplified operation and testing, frequently lack these powerful security mechanisms. These servers usually belong to a separate network infrastructure that offers a lower level of protection.

Access control. In the case of test servers, all users commonly have the same high-level permissions, making the infrastructure susceptible to breaches due to weak or duplicated passwords.

Vulnerabilities and bugs. Test servers, being the platform for new features and updates, may often contain older software versions, potentially brimming with exploitable vulnerabilities.

To tackle these issues, one primary protection method is to never use sensitive data in its unprocessed form on test servers. Data masking, despite being resource-intensive, can significantly decrease the severity of a potential leak.

In addition, the importance of a well-structured regulatory framework cannot be overstated. Even with minimal resources, adhering to a set of clear, structured regulations can greatly enhance the security of the test infrastructure.

Final thoughts

Security measures for test servers form a vital part of the overall development and testing process. Although dealing with test servers carries inherent risks that can have severe consequences for the company and its users, implementing appropriate security measures can greatly minimize these risks.

Key steps towards secure test servers include the isolation of test servers on a separate network, deployment of robust authentication and authorization mechanisms, regular server updates and configurations, restrictions on access to test data, and frequent vulnerability checks.

Security should not be an afterthought, but rather an integral part of every phase of development and testing. By instilling strong security measures, adhering to industry best practices, and regularly updating your security policies in line with the latest information security trends, the risks associated with test servers can be substantially mitigated. This ensures that data confidentiality and integrity are preserved, protecting your company from potential threats and incidents associated with test servers.

Test servers: the pitfalls of information security

Aug 22, 2023 — 4 min read

When it comes to investing in company security, there are different approaches. Some organizations allocate substantial funds to proprietary solutions offered by vendors, while others opt to develop their own SIEM (Security, Information and Event Management systems) using open-source code.

The question arises: which option is more cost-effective in practice? Should one pay for a proprietary solution or rely on open-source alternatives? In this article, we delve into the realm of free SIEM solutions used in companies today, as well as the reasons why information security specialists often exhibit reluctance towards them.

A closer look at open-source SIEM systems

The appeal of open-source solutions increases with fewer restrictions. The most popular free SIEMs possess the ability to handle any number of users and data, offering scalability, and garnering support from the IT community.

Among the top-tier open-source SIEM systems, you’ll find:

AlienVault OSSIM SIEM. A version of AlienVault USM, a leading solution in this domain worldwide. Users gain access to a free framework encompassing intrusion detection systems, network and host monitoring, vulnerability scanning, and other open-source tools.

MozDef. Developed by Mozilla, MozDef is a SIEM system created from scratch. Similar to AlienVault OSSIM SIEM, it is built upon tried and tested open-source projects. The developers claim that MozDef can handle over 300 million events daily.

Wazuh. Originally developed within another open-source SIEM system called OSSEC, Wazuh evolved into a standalone product. It is capable of simultaneously collecting data through agents and system logs. Wazuh boasts a modern web interface, REST API, and an extensive set of rules.

OSSEC SIEM. Often referred to as the older sibling of Wazuh, OSSEC SIEM is widely recognized in the information security community as a reliable free intrusion detection solution.

Sagan. This SIEM tool specializes in real-time analysis of network inputs and the evaluation of their correlations. Its high performance stems from a multi-threaded architecture.

Prelude OSS. Serving as an open-source counterpart to the paid Prelude SIEM system from French developer CS, Prelude OSS supports various log formats and seamlessly integrates with popular open-source tools developed by others.

Additionally, companies often employ other free products like ELK SIEM, Snort, Suricata, SecurityOnion, Apache Metron, and more to construct their own systems. Many of these options are limited versions of proprietary software offered by vendors to familiarize users with their core systems.

When open source code is appropriate

One popular reason for implementing open-source SIEM today is to test-drive commercial systems, even with a minimal set of features. Free open-source versions allow professionals to evaluate expensive products in a live environment and gain insights into their inner workings.

Moreover, an open-source SIEM system becomes a viable choice when an organization can engage a large team of programmers. Any open-source solution necessitates further development and adaptation to fit seamlessly within the company's IT infrastructure. If there is no team available to handle these tasks, the utilization of free solutions loses its purpose.

One of the main challenges faced by companies employing open-source software is the lack of qualified specialists. Developing and maintaining such SIEM systems requires experienced Linux administrators, analysts, and experts proficient in connecting new sources, developing correlation rules, designing dashboards, and more. Given that freeware often comes with minimal features and customization options out of the box, significant work is involved, particularly during the initial months post-implementation.

These factors can impact the total cost of ownership of a system. Consequently, Open Source SIEM is a viable choice only for those who possess a thorough understanding of their requirements and have the necessary resources.

Challenges in open-source SIEM

There is a saying that "Linux is only free when you don't value your time." The same holds true for open-source SIEM tools. Difficulties in product improvement contribute to the compromised security of open-source products. Addressing identified vulnerabilities can often take weeks or even months, providing an opportunity for cybercriminals to exploit them.

There are other notable considerations when it comes to open-source SIEM. Specifically, an open-source system. For example, it lacks official technical support: User queries regarding installation and maintenance of free solutions are typically addressed by fellow users, rather than a dedicated owner-developer of the software. Moreover, it may simply cease to exist. Indeed, even if a community actively supported a product yesterday, it may be abandoned the next day, leaving users without crucial updates.
Next, it’s not a ready-to-use solution. To ensure proper functioning with data sources, connectors are required to convert incoming events into a compatible format for further processing.

These challenges are inherent to open-source SIEM systems and cannot be completely avoided. It is up to each company to determine whether they are willing to accept these risks.


Open Source SIEM systems are not universally suitable for every company. On one hand, adapting open-source code to align with specific requirements necessitates a team of highly skilled IT professionals and significant financial resources. On the other hand, regulatory requirements often dictate the installation of certified software in most cases.

However, dismissing open-source tools entirely would be unwise. They can be employed as references when establishing requirements and preferences for paid SIEM solutions.

Exploring free open source SIEM tools: advantages and disadvantages

Aug 8, 2023 — 4 min read

This latest update demonstrates our focus on refining user experience and enhancing collaborative password management.

No longer will you need to create password copies in various vaults — we've introduced shortcuts. With these handy labels, you can easily organize access to passwords from different directories.

The new enhanced settings provide administrators with more control over configurations and user rights, and all changes require approvals, preventing any unintentional actions.

LDAP user management has now become simpler with its cleaner interface and background data updates.

In addition to that, Passwork 6.0 brings new notifications and interface improvements. All these enhancements contribute to a more comfortable user experience while ensuring the security of passwords and sensitive data.


Shortcuts are a new way to share passwords, enhancing collaboration flexibility. There's no need for creating password duplicates in different vaults — instead, create multiple shortcuts in required directories. All changes to original passwords are reflected in shortcuts, keeping your team up to date. Users can view or edit data via shortcuts according to their access rights.

Choose the directories where you would like to create shortcuts
View the complete list of shortcuts to passwords created in a specific vault

Sending passwords without granting partial access to vaults

Previous versions of Passwork encrypt passwords at the vault level. This type of encryption gives users partial access to vaults even when a single password is shared with them. Now, when users access passwords via their "Inbox" or a shortcut, they receive keys to specific passwords, but not their vaults.

Administrators can clearly see who has vault access rights, and who can only work with specific passwords.

Send passwords to users with necessary access rights
View the complete list of all passwords that were sent from a specific vault


The LDAP interface is now cleaner and more intuitive, with a reimagined user management logic. Adding new LDAP users is simpler and safer, especially with the client-side encryption enabled.

Previously, admins had to add an employee and provide a master password. Now, users set their master passwords upon the first login, and admins confirm them afterwards.

The "Users" tab shows registered users, and there is a separate window for adding new ones. LDAP user data updates take place  in the background, allowing admins to navigate elsewhere without waiting for data refresh.

View your LDAP user list and add users to Passwork
Set up your LDAP integration in the updated interface

Passwork now provides more detailed security group information. The groups that are linked to roles are marked with special tags, and the groups which were not loaded from LDAP during the last update are marked as "Deleted", alerting admins to adjust the search settings or remove such groups. Also, you can now see the members of each security group.

Map your LDAP groups with Passwork roles and set up their automatic synchronization

Improved settings

We've redesigned all settings sections for a unified visual style and enhanced functionality, reimagined the logics of some settings.

Rights for links, tags, and password sharing. Previously, these settings were applied individually to each user. Now, they are applied to everyone with a certain level of vault access. For example, anyone with the “Edit” access rights or higher can create hyperlinks to passwords. These parameters are located in the system settings under the “Global” tab.

Change confirmation. We've added “Save” and “Cancel changes” buttons in system settings. Now, any changes to settings must be confirmed — this helps to prevent accidental actions.

Custom auto-logout time. Users can now set these parameters individually, and admins specify the maximum inactivity time period before automatic logout.

Language selection. In the new version of Passwork, admins can allow employees to choose their interface language.

Choose the required access level which will make it possible to send passwords, create links and shortcuts

Interface enhancements

Improved drag and drop. Now, when dragging and dropping passwords and folders into desired directories, Passwork displays selectable actions — move, copy, or create a shortcut.

Select folders and passwords, then drag and drop them to the required directory
Choose actions for the selected objects: move, copy, create shortcuts

Other improvements

Separate windows for access to the safe and additional access. Vault access info is now split into two easy-to-read windows. One window shows users who has access to a specific vault, and the other displays alternative ways passwords from this vault can be accessed — shortcuts, hyperlinks, or shared passwords.

Redesigned password action buttons. On the password panel, we've added the "Edit" button and grouped together all actions for additional password access via shortcuts, links, or direct user sharing.

Additional fields for password import and export. Passwork 6.0 supports the use of custom fields, that means you can transfer not only login and password but also additional information stored within password cards.

New notifications. Administrators will receive notifications about new unconfirmed users, and employees will be notified of new passwords in the "Incoming" section.

Introducing Passwork 6.0

Jul 21, 2023 — 4 min read

A Security Operations Center (SOC) is a critical hub for cybersecurity within organizations. It combines people, processes, and technologies to detect, analyze, and respond to security incidents. In this article, we will delve into the components that make up a SOC, starting with its basic systems, then moving on to heavier software tools, and finally exploring emerging technologies that hold promise for the future of SOC operations.

Basic systems

The foundation of any SOC lies in its basic systems, which provide fundamental capabilities for monitoring, analysis, and incident response. These systems include:

A Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) system: A SIEM tool collects and correlates data from various sources, such as logs, network traffic, and endpoint events. It helps identify security incidents and generates alerts for further investigation. SIEM systems provide a centralized view of security events, allowing SOC analysts to detect patterns and anomalies.

Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS): IDS and IPS monitor network traffic, searching for suspicious patterns or known attack signatures. IDS detects intrusions, while IPS can actively block or mitigate threats in real time. These systems play a crucial role in detecting and preventing unauthorized access and malicious activities within the network.

Vulnerability management systems: Vulnerability management systems scan and assess the organization's network, applications, and systems for vulnerabilities. They enable proactive identification and remediation of security weaknesses, reducing the risk of exploitation by attackers. These systems play a vital role in maintaining a secure infrastructure.

Log management systems: Logs are critical for forensic analysis and incident response. Log management systems collect, store, and analyze logs from various sources, providing valuable insights into security events. They help SOC teams investigate incidents, identify the root cause of security breaches, and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements.

Network Traffic Analysis (NTA) tools: NTA tools analyze network traffic at a granular level, identifying anomalies and potential threats. By monitoring and analyzing network traffic patterns, these tools help SOC teams detect and respond to suspicious activities. NTA tools enhance visibility into network behavior, allowing SOC analysts to identify sophisticated threats that traditional security systems may miss.

Heavier software

As threats become more sophisticated, SOC teams require advanced software tools to combat them effectively. Let’s take a look at some examples.

Threat intelligence platforms: Threat intelligence platforms aggregate data from various sources to provide up-to-date information about known threats, vulnerabilities, and indicators of compromise. They enhance incident detection and response capabilities by enabling SOC teams to proactively identify and mitigate potential risks. Threat intelligence platforms allow organizations to stay informed about emerging threats and adopt appropriate defense measures.

Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR): EDR solutions monitor endpoint devices for suspicious activities and potential threats. They provide real-time visibility, investigation, and response capabilities, helping SOC teams swiftly identify and contain incidents. EDR tools leverage behavioral analysis and threat intelligence to detect and respond to advanced threats, such as file-less malware and insider threats, at the endpoint level.

Security Orchestration, Automation, and Response (SOAR): SOAR platforms streamline and automate SOC processes, integrating various tools and technologies. They facilitate incident triage, investigation, and response, enabling faster and more efficient security operations. SOAR platforms automate routine tasks, allowing SOC analysts to focus on high-value activities like threat hunting and incident response.

User and Entity Behavior Analytics (UEBA): UEBA tools leverage machine learning algorithms to establish baseline behaviors for users and entities within an organization. They detect anomalous activities, such as insider threats or compromised accounts, by analyzing behavior patterns. UEBA tools provide insights into user activities, helping SOC teams identify potential security incidents and mitigate risks.

Deception technologies: Deception technologies create decoys and traps within a network, luring attackers and diverting their attention. By interacting with deception assets, SOC teams can gather valuable threat intelligence and gain insights into attackers' techniques. Deception technologies complement traditional security measures by providing early detection and response capabilities.

Looking forward

The evolving threat landscape calls for constant innovation in the field of cybersecurity. Several technologies show promise for enhancing SOC capabilities in the future. Let’s take a look at a few.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML): AI and ML techniques are already being utilized in various aspects of cybersecurity. They can aid in threat detection, anomaly detection, and behavior analysis, enabling more proactive and accurate identification of security incidents. AI and ML algorithms can analyze vast amounts of data and identify patterns that human analysts may miss, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of SOC operations.

Advanced analytics: Advanced analytics techniques, such as predictive analytics and behavioral analytics, can provide deeper insights into security events and help identify emerging threats. By analyzing historical and real-time data, SOC teams can uncover hidden connections and predict future attack trends. Advanced analytics empower SOC analysts to make informed decisions, prioritize threats, and allocate resources effectively.

Cloud-based security: As organizations increasingly adopt cloud infrastructure, SOC operations will need to adapt accordingly. Cloud-native security solutions, including Cloud Access Security Brokers (CASBs) and Cloud Security Posture Management (CSPM) tools, are emerging to address the unique challenges of cloud environments. These solutions provide visibility, control, and compliance assurance across cloud services, ensuring that organizations can protect their data and applications effectively.

Internet of Things (IoT) security: With the proliferation of IoT devices, SOC teams will face the challenge of securing these endpoints. Future SOC technologies should incorporate specialized IoT security solutions that monitor and protect connected devices. IoT security platforms can detect and mitigate IoT-specific threats, such as device tampering, unauthorized access, and data exfiltration. These technologies enable SOC teams to secure the expanding landscape of IoT devices within organizations.

Quantum computing: Quantum computing has the potential to revolutionize cryptography and threat intelligence analysis. With its immense computational power, quantum computers may help SOC teams tackle complex cryptographic algorithms and facilitate faster threat analysis. Quantum-resistant encryption algorithms and quantum-enabled threat detection techniques may become crucial components of future SOC operations.


A well-equipped SOC comprises basic systems, advanced software, and future technologies. The basic systems form the foundation, providing essential monitoring and analysis capabilities. Heavier software tools enhance incident response and detection, allowing SOC teams to stay ahead of evolving threats. Looking ahead, emerging technologies like AI, advanced analytics, cloud-based security, IoT security solutions, and quantum computing hold the potential to revolutionize SOC operations, enabling organizations to protect their assets and data more effectively in an ever-changing cybersecurity landscape.

Exploring the components of a Security Operations Center (SOC): basic systems, advanced software, and future technologies

Jul 19, 2023 — 3 min read

Symmetric algorithms, forming the backbone of modern cryptography, offer a secure method of encrypting and decrypting data utilizing a single shared key. They have been widely adopted for their unmatched speed and efficiency. Like any other technology, symmetric algorithms come with their own set of benefits and drawbacks. This article seeks to offer a comprehensive review of the pros and cons of symmetric algorithms, providing a deeper understanding of their integral role in data security and the potential challenges they entail.

Pros of symmetric algorithms

Unrivaled efficiency

Symmetric algorithms are best known for their superior efficiency in handling large volumes of data for encryption and decryption. The use of a single key significantly reduces the demand for computational resources, setting symmetric algorithms apart from their asymmetric counterparts. This makes them an excellent fit for applications that demand high-speed data processing, including secure communication channels and real-time data transfers.

Impressive speed

Symmetric algorithms, by virtue of their simplicity, can process data at a much faster rate than asymmetric algorithms. Without the need for complex mathematical operations, such as prime factorization or modular arithmetic, symmetric algorithms can encrypt and decrypt data rapidly, reducing latency. This speed advantage is particularly beneficial for applications requiring swift data encryption, including secure cloud storage and virtual private networks (VPNs).

Key distribution

Symmetric algorithms simplify the key distribution process. Given that both the sender and receiver utilize the same key, they only need to execute a secure key exchange once. This offers increased convenience in scenarios where multiple parties need to communicate securely, such as within large organizations, military operations, or corporate communications.

Computational simplicity

Symmetric algorithms are relatively straightforward to implement due to their computational simplicity. This allows for efficient coding, making them ideally suited for resource-constrained devices that possess limited computational capabilities, such as embedded systems or Internet of Things (IoT) devices. This simplicity also contributes to easier maintenance and debugging, reducing the potential for implementation errors that could compromise security.

Cons of symmetric algorithms

Complex key management

The management and distribution of shared keys are significant challenges inherent to symmetric algorithms. The security of these algorithms is closely tied to the confidentiality of the key. Any unauthorized access or compromise of the key can lead to a total breach of data security. Consequently, robust key management protocols are essential, including secure storage, key rotation, and secure key exchange mechanisms, to mitigate this risk.

Lack of authentication

Symmetric algorithms do not inherently provide authentication mechanisms. The absence of additional measures, such as digital signatures or message authentication codes, can make it challenging to verify the integrity and authenticity of the encrypted data. This opens the door for potential data tampering or unauthorized modifications, posing a considerable security risk.


Symmetric algorithms face challenges when it comes to scalability. Since each pair of communicating entities requires a unique shared key, the number of required keys increases exponentially with the number of participants. This can be impractical for large-scale networks or systems that involve numerous users, as managing a vast number of keys becomes complex and resource-intensive.

Lack of perfect forward secrecy

Symmetric algorithms lack perfect forward secrecy, meaning that if the shared key is compromised, all previous and future communications encrypted with that key become vulnerable. This limitation makes symmetric algorithms less suitable for scenarios where long-term confidentiality of data is crucial, such as secure messaging applications.

An in-depth analysis of symmetric algorithms

Symmetric algorithms, including the widely adopted AES, DES, and Blowfish, are favored for their speed and efficiency. However, their robustness is largely dependent on the size of the key and the security of the key during transmission and storage. While larger keys can enhance security, they also increase the computational load. Thus, selecting the appropriate key size is a critical decision that requires a careful balance between security and performance requirements.

One of the standout strengths of symmetric encryption is its application in bulk data encryption. Because of their speed, symmetric algorithms are ideally suited for scenarios where large amounts of data need to be encrypted quickly. However, they may not always be the best solution. In many cases, asymmetric encryption algorithms, despite their higher computational demands, are preferred because of their additional security benefits.

It's also crucial to note that cryptographic needs often go beyond just encryption and decryption. Other security aspects, such as data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation, are not inherently provided by symmetric algorithms. Therefore, a comprehensive security scheme often uses symmetric algorithms in conjunction with other cryptographic mechanisms, such as hash functions and digital signatures, to provide a full suite of security services.

Final thoughts

Symmetric algorithms occupy a pivotal place in the realm of cryptography. Their efficiency and speed make them an invaluable asset for many applications, especially those involving large-scale data encryption. However, the limitations inherent in symmetric algorithms, including key management complexities, lack of authentication, and absence of perfect forward secrecy, necessitate meticulous implementation and the incorporation of additional security measures. Therefore, the decision to utilize symmetric algorithms should be made based on a thorough understanding of these pros and cons, as well as the specific requirements of the system in question.

Pros and cons of symmetric algorithms: ensuring security and efficiency

Jul 3, 2023 — 4 min read

The marvels of modern computing are, in part, thanks to advances in artificial intelligence. Specific breakthroughs in large language models, such as OpenAI's GPT-4 and Google's BERT, have transformed our understanding of data processing and manipulation. These sophisticated models masterfully convert input data—whether it be text, numbers, or more—into a form that machines can understand. This intricate process, known as data encoding, serves as the foundation for these models to comprehend and generate human-like text. Let's delve deeper into the intricacies of data encoding and how it powers the magic of AI language models.

The secret code of machines

The beginning of the journey involves comprehending how GPT-4 or BERT processes sentences typed into them. Contrary to human processing capabilities, these models can't directly interpret words. Instead, they employ something known as word embeddings. This complex yet efficient technique transforms each word into a unique mathematical form—akin to a secret code decipherable only by machines. Each encoding is meticulously performed to ensure that semantically similar words receive comparable codes. The aim is to create a rich, multidimensional landscape where each word's meaning is determined by its location relative to other words.

The role of positional encoding in context understanding

While individual words carry their importance, the structure of language extends beyond isolated entities. The sequence of words, the context, can drastically alter the meaning of a sentence. To illustrate, consider the phrases "Dog bites man" and "Man bites dog." The same words are used, but their arrangement creates entirely different narratives. That's where positional encoding enters the picture. By assigning each word an additional code indicating its position in the sentence, positional encoding provides models with a vital understanding of language structure and syntax.

The attention process: making words context-aware

After word and positional encoding, these mathematical representations, or word embeddings, undergo an 'attention' mechanism. Here, each word embarks on a figurative group discussion with all the other words in the sentence. During this interaction, each word decides the importance it should attribute to the others. For instance, in the sentence "Jane, who just moved here, loves the city," the word "Jane" would assign significant attention to "loves."

These 'attention' weights are then used to compute a new representation for each word that is acutely aware of its context within the sentence. This batch of context-aware embeddings journeys through multiple layers within the model, each designed to refine the model's understanding of the sentence. This systematic processing prepares the model to generate responses or predictions that accurately reflect the intended meaning of the sentence.

GPT-4: writing text one word at a time

GPT-4 has adopted a unique approach when it comes to generating text. It operates on a "one word at a time" principle. Beginning with an input, it predicts the next word based on the preceding context. This predicted word is then included in the context for predicting the following word, and the process repeats. This strategy allows GPT-4 to produce text that is not just grammatically coherent, but also semantically relevant, mirroring the way humans write one sentence after another.

BERT: a 360-degree view of sentence context

BERT, on the other hand, possesses a distinct capability that sets it apart from other models. It can process and understand text in both directions simultaneously. BERT does not limit itself to considering words before or after a given word. Instead, it absorbs the entire context at once, effectively offering a 360-degree view of the sentence. This bidirectional understanding enables BERT to comprehend the meaning of words based on their complete context, significantly enhancing the model's ability to interpret and generate nuanced responses.

The versatility of data encoding

While language forms a significant chunk of these models' use cases, they aren't confined to it. An exciting feature of models like GPT-4 and BERT is their ability to work with any kind of sequential data. This characteristic opens up a universe of possibilities for diverse fields, from composing harmonic music to decoding complex genetic sequences, predicting stock market trends, or even simulating game strategies. By analyzing patterns in the sequential data, these models can unearth hidden insights and produce creative outcomes, making them an invaluable asset in numerous areas beyond language processing.

Expanding horizons: applications and future prospects

The wonders of data encoding do not stop with text generation. In fact, the potential applications of these AI models are continually expanding. They can be used to aid human decision-making in complex scenarios, such as medical diagnosis or legal analysis, by digesting massive amounts of textual data and making informed suggestions. In the field of research, they can help summarize lengthy academic papers or generate new hypotheses based on existing literature. The entertainment industry isn't left out either, as these models can create engaging content, ranging from writing captivating stories to generating dialogues for video games.

Moreover, GPT-4 and BERT's remarkable abilities to understand and manipulate language are catalyzing research into other AI models. Researchers are exploring ways to combine the strengths of various models and reduce their limitations, which promises an even more exciting future for AI.


In conclusion, data encoding in AI models like GPT-4 and BERT can be likened to watching a symphony of processes working in perfect harmony. From word embeddings and positional encoding to attention mechanisms, these models leverage a series of intricate techniques to decode the hidden patterns in data, transforming it into meaningful information. The incredible capability of these models to understand context, generate human-like text, and adapt to diverse data types is revolutionizing the field of artificial intelligence, paving the way for a future brimming with AI innovations.

How large language models encode data