A complete guide for SSL, TLS and certificates

Latest — May 30, 2023

Wearable technology has become increasingly popular in recent years, with devices like the Apple Watch, Fitbit, and Xiaomi gaining significant market share. These devices offer a wide range of features, from tracking fitness goals to monitoring health data and staying connected with the digital world. However, with the rise of wearable tech, concerns have been raised about how secure these devices are and whether they put user data at risk.


The types of data that wearable tech collects vary from device to device. Some devices, such as fitness trackers, collect basic health data such as heart rate and activity level. Other devices, such as smartwatches, can collect more sensitive data such as location, messages, and emails. This data is typically stored on the device and synced to the cloud, making it accessible from any device that the user is logged into.

One of the most significant concerns with wearable tech is the security of this data. If the device or cloud storage is not properly secured, the data could be accessed by hackers who could use it for malicious purposes. For example, hackers could use location data to track users' movements or steal their identity by accessing their personal information.

To protect user data, most wearable tech companies implement security measures. For example, the Apple Watch uses encryption to protect data stored on the device, and it requires a passcode or biometric authentication to access the device. Similarly, Fitbit and Xiaomi use encryption to protect user data and offer security features such as two-factor authentication.

Despite these measures, data breaches in wearable tech have unfortunately become more common in recent years, highlighting the need for continued vigilance when it comes to security measures. For example, in 2017, researchers discovered a vulnerability in the Bluetooth communication protocol used by many wearable devices. This vulnerability, known as BlueBorne, allowed hackers to take control of devices and steal sensitive data.

In 2019, it was discovered that several popular fitness apps had inadvertently exposed sensitive user data. The apps, which were used in conjunction with wearable fitness trackers, had failed to properly secure user data, leaving information like usernames, passwords, and exercise routines vulnerable to attack.

Another example of a wearable tech data breach occurred in 2018 when hackers stole sensitive data from the Polar fitness app. The data, which included location data, was collected by the app's users and stored on Polar's servers. However, the servers were not properly secured, allowing hackers to access the data and track the movements of military personnel and intelligence agents in sensitive locations.

How to protect your data and privacy?

To protect your data and privacy when using wearable tech, there are several steps you can take. Firstly, always use strong, unique passwords for your wearable tech accounts, and consider using a password manager to help generate and manage these passwords.

Secondly, ensure that your device's software is always up-to-date with the latest security patches and updates. This will help to protect against known vulnerabilities and ensure that any new security features are in place.

Thirdly, be aware of the data that your wearable tech is collecting and where it is being stored. Check the privacy policy of your device and app to understand how your data is being used and shared. If you are concerned about your privacy, consider disabling certain features or opting out of data sharing.

Then, consider using a VPN (Virtual Private Network) to protect your online activities when using wearable tech. A VPN encrypts your internet connection, making it more difficult for hackers to intercept your data. VPNs are particularly useful when using public Wi-Fi, which is often unsecured and vulnerable to hacking.

Lastly, it's essential to know how to identify potential threats and scams that may target wearable tech users. This can include phishing emails or fake apps that may trick users into disclosing their personal information or installing malware on their devices.

Wearable tech in the workplace

Another important consideration when it comes to wearable tech security is the role of wearable tech in the workplace. Wearable tech is increasingly being used in workplace environments, where it can offer benefits like tracking employee productivity and health. However, it is essential to ensure that wearable tech devices used in the workplace are properly secured and that sensitive workplace data is not put at risk.

Organizations can take several steps to protect workplace data when using wearable tech.

Firstly, companies should develop a clear policy on the use of wearable tech in the workplace, outlining the acceptable use of these devices and the security measures that should be in place.

Secondly, companies should invest in secure wearable tech devices that offer robust security features, such as encryption and two-factor authentication. This will help to protect sensitive workplace data from unauthorized access and reduce the risk of data breaches.

Thirdly, organizations should provide training for employees on how to use wearable tech devices securely. This could include information on the importance of using strong passwords, keeping devices up-to-date with the latest security patches and updates, and being aware of potential security threats.

Finally, companies should implement monitoring and control measures to ensure that wearable tech devices used in the workplace are being used appropriately and that sensitive data is not being put at risk.


Overall, wearable tech devices offer many benefits for both individuals and organizations, but it is essential to take steps to protect data and privacy. By following the best practices outlined above, individuals and companies can minimize the risks associated with using wearable tech devices and enjoy the many benefits that these innovative devices offer.

How secure is wearable tech?

May 26, 2023 — 4 min read

Digital Rights Management (DRM) is a technology that is used to control the use and distribution of digital content, including music, movies, e-books, and software. The primary purpose of DRM is to ensure that digital content is only used in ways that are authorized by the copyright owner. DRM technology works by placing restrictions on the use of digital content, which are then enforced through encryption, digital signatures, or other methods.

DRM systems typically involve the use of software that is integrated with the content. This software is designed to control how the content is used and to prevent unauthorized access to the content. DRM systems can also be integrated with hardware devices, such as DVD players or e-book readers, to ensure that the content is only used in authorized ways.

One of the most common methods of implementing DRM is through the use of encryption. When digital content is encrypted, it is transformed into a code that cannot be understood without a key. The key is typically stored on a server, and it is used to decrypt the content as and when it is needed. DRM systems can also use digital signatures to authenticate the content and to ensure that it has not been tampered with.

DRM systems are designed to be flexible so that they can be customized to meet the needs of different types of digital content and different types of users. For example, a DRM system for music may allow users to play the music on a limited number of devices, while a DRM system for software may allow users to install the software on a single device.

DRM technology is utilized to protect a wide range of digital content, including entertainment media such as books, music, and videos, as well as sensitive business data, database subscriptions, and software programs. DRM helps content creators and copyright holders control how their work is used and prevent unauthorized changes or misuse.

Here are some examples of DRM in action:

iTunes. Apple's iTunes store uses DRM to limit the number of devices customers can use to listen to songs. The audio files purchased from iTunes contain information about the purchase and usage of the songs, which prevents access from unauthorized devices. Additionally, the content in the iBooks store is protected by FairPlay technology, which ensures that books can only be read on iOS devices.

Digital Music. Spotify uses blockchain technology and DRM to identify songs played and pay the right artist through cryptocurrency. The music streaming company acquired Mediachain to assist in this process.

Microsoft Software. before downloading Microsoft software, such as Windows or Office, users must accept the company's user license and enter a key. Microsoft also uses a kind of DRM technology called PlayReady to secure the distribution of content over a network and prevent unauthorized use of its software.

Sensitive Documents. Many organizations use DRM to protect business-critical documents and sensitive information, such as confidential employee data, business plans, and contracts. DRM allows organizations to track who has viewed files, control access, and manage usage, as well as prevent alteration, duplication, saving, or printing.

Regulatory Compliance. DRM is important for organizations to comply with data protection regulations, such as HIPAA for healthcare organizations and CCPA and GDPR for all organizations.

Despite the benefits of DRM, there are also some criticisms of the technology. Some users argue that DRM restricts their ability to use digital content in ways that they feel are reasonable and legitimate. For example, they may feel that they should be able to transfer a purchased song from one device to another or to make a backup copy of a digital book.

Additionally, DRM systems can be vulnerable to hacking and other forms of attack. If a DRM system is compromised, it can allow unauthorized access to the content, which can undermine the purpose of the DRM system. This has led some users to view DRM as an unnecessary restriction on their ability to use digital content and as a threat to their privacy and security.

Another criticism of DRM is that it can make it difficult for users to access their digital content in the future. For example, if a user switches from one device to another, they may find that their DRM-protected content is not compatible with their new device. Additionally, if the company that provides the DRM system goes out of business or discontinues support for the system, users may be unable to access their content.

Despite these criticisms, DRM remains an important tool for protecting the rights of copyright owners and for ensuring that digital content is used in authorized ways. DRM systems have been used by a wide range of companies, including music labels, movie studios, and software publishers, to control the use and distribution of their digital content.

In recent years, some companies have started to move away from DRM, recognizing that it can be a barrier to the adoption of digital content. For example, some music labels have started to offer DRM-free music downloads, recognizing that users are more likely to purchase music if they are not restricted in their ability to use it. Additionally, some e-book publishers have started to offer DRM-free books, recognizing that users may be more likely to purchase books if they are not restricted in their ability to use them.

However, despite these trends, DRM remains an important tool for many companies, especially for those that want to ensure that their digital content is used in authorized ways. DRM is particularly important for companies that are concerned about piracy, as it can help to prevent unauthorized copying and distribution of their content.

In conclusion, DRM is a technology that is used to control the use and distribution of digital content. DRM systems work by placing restrictions on the use of digital content and enforcing these restrictions through encryption, digital signatures, or other methods.

While DRM has its benefits, including the protection of the rights of copyright owners, it also has its criticisms, including restrictions on the use of digital content and the potential for hacking and other forms of attack. Nevertheless, despite these criticisms, DRM remains an important tool for many companies and is likely to continue to be used in the future.

What is digital rights management (DRM) and how does it work

May 24, 2023 — 4 min read

The importance of protecting the safety and security of our digital devices and the data stored on them has grown significantly as technology continues to advance and become more integrated into our everyday lives. The efficacy of antivirus software, as well as the role it plays in protecting users from online dangers, has come under close examination in recent years. This report goes into the present status of cybersecurity, the limitations and advantages of antivirus applications, and the alternative solutions that are available for defending your devices and data in 2023.

Understanding the modern cyber threat landscape

The landscape of cyber threats has expanded at an exponential rate over the past several years, with attacks becoming extremely advanced, diverse, and targeted. The term "cyber threats" no longer just refers just to viruses; they now include a wide variety of assaults, including the following:


A type of malware that encrypts a victim's files and demands a ransom in exchange for a decryption key.

Phishing attacks

Fraudulent attempts to obtain sensitive information, such as login credentials or financial data, by masquerading as a trustworthy entity.

Zero-day exploits

Attacks that take advantage of previously unknown vulnerabilities in software or hardware, giving developers no time to create and distribute patches.

Advanced persistent threats (APTs)

Long-term, targeted cyberattacks that often involve multiple attack vectors and are typically aimed at high-value targets, such as governments and large corporations.

Because cybercriminals are using more sophisticated strategies, it is essential for antivirus software and other cybersecurity solutions to evolve at the same rate in order to maintain their efficacy.

The limitations of traditional antivirus software

Traditional antivirus software primarily relies on signature-based detection, a method that compares files and programs against a database of known malware signatures. This strategy may be useful against recognized dangers, but it suffers from a number of limitations, including the:

Inability to detect new or unknown malware

Signature-based detection struggles to identify new malware variants or previously unknown threats, leaving users vulnerable to emerging cyber risks.

Slow response to new threats

Updating signature databases to include new malware often takes time, resulting in a window of vulnerability.

False positives and negatives

Signature-based detection can produce false positives (identifying benign files as malware) and false negatives (failing to detect actual malware), affecting the overall accuracy and effectiveness of the antivirus software.

The emergence of next-generation antivirus (NGAV) solutions

To address the limitations of traditional antivirus software and better combat the evolving threat landscape, the cybersecurity industry has developed next-generation antivirus solutions. NGAV products employ a combination of advanced techniques, such as:

Behavioral analytics

Monitoring the behavior of applications and processes to detect anomalies indicative of malicious activity, even if the malware itself is unknown or has no known signature.

Machine learning

Utilizing algorithms that learn from previous experiences to identify patterns and characteristics of malware, allowing for more accurate detection and classification.

Artificial intelligence

Incorporating AI to enhance threat detection capabilities and adapt to the ever-changing cyber threat landscape.

These advanced techniques make it possible for Next-Generation Antivirus (NGAV) solutions to offer protection that is more proactive and effective against new cyber threats.

Adopting a multi-layered security strategy

Although NGAV solutions represent a significant improvement over traditional antivirus programs, relying solely on a single security solution is insufficient. A multi-layered security approach, combining multiple tools and strategies, is essential for comprehensive protection in 2023. Key elements of a robust cybersecurity strategy include:

Regular software updates

Timely updates to your operating system and applications ensure that known vulnerabilities are patched, reducing opportunities for cybercriminals to exploit them.

A firewall

A strong firewall helps prevent unauthorized access to your network, serving as the first line of defense against potential intruders.

Security awareness training

Regular training and education for users about potential threats and best practices for online safety are crucial in preventing successful attacks, such as phishing and social engineering.

Data backup

Regularly backing up your data ensures that, in the event of a successful attack, you can recover quickly and minimize potential losses.

Endpoint detection and response (EDR)

EDR solutions provide advanced threat detection and response capabilities, monitoring your devices and network for signs of compromise.

Multi-factor authentication (MFA)

Implementing MFA adds an extra layer of security to your online accounts, making it more difficult for attackers to gain unauthorized access.

Network segmentation

Separating your network into smaller segments can help contain potential breaches and limit the spread of malware.

Vulnerability management

Regularly scanning your network and devices for vulnerabilities and addressing them promptly can significantly reduce your risk of cyberattacks.

Do you need antivirus software in 2023?

Given the complexities of the modern threat landscape, maintaining a robust cybersecurity posture is more critical than ever. Traditional antivirus software alone may not offer sufficient protection, but implementing next-generation antivirus solutions and adopting a multi-layered security approach can significantly enhance your defenses.

In conclusion, the question should not be whether you need antivirus software in 2023, but rather which solution best fits your needs and how it can be integrated into a comprehensive security strategy. By staying informed about emerging threats and continually adapting your defenses, you can reduce your risk of falling victim to cyberattacks and protect your valuable data and devices.

As a final note, it is crucial to remember that cybersecurity is not a one-size-fits-all solution. Depending on the nature of your online activities and the sensitivity of the data you handle, your security needs may differ. Regularly evaluating your cybersecurity measures and adapting them as needed will help ensure that you are adequately protected in the ever-evolving digital landscape of 2023.

Navigating the cybersecurity landscape in 2023: do you need antivirus?

May 22, 2023 — 4 min read

The vast majority of individuals look for nearby WiFi hotspots on their laptop computers. The most up-to-date personal computers have the ability to instantly recognize whether a wireless connection is present. But what if you don’t want to go through the effort of unpacking your laptop, starting it up, logging on, and then strolling about with it just to discover that there is no wireless network coverage in the area where you are? Because of this, having a WiFi sniffer on hand may be quite helpful in assisting you in rapidly locating the nearest WiFi network.

What is a WiFi sniffer?

A WiFi sniffer is a portable instrument that can locate the wifi network that is closest to the user. In addition to this, it will assist you in determining the strength of the WiFi signal, and if there are many signals, a WiFi sniffer will prioritize the signals in terms of their strength, which will save the user both time and annoyance.

WiFi sniffers are available in a variety of device formats, either as a stand-alone appliance or as software add-ons that interact with your wireless mobile device. You may get a WiFi sniffer in any of these two ways. The add-ons may often be obtained through the service provider of your mobile device, although standalone WiFi sniffers can be purchased at any store specializing in the sale of computers or electronic goods.

WiFi sniffers are able to handle all kinds of wireless network cards and come included with a Prism2 driver that may assist you in determining the intensity of the signal. WiFi sniffers are developed using C++ programming and operate using an "n-tier" structure. The gathering of data begins at the lowest tier and progresses up to the topmost layer, which is where the user interface is placed.

How does a WiFi sniffer work?

The operation of a WiFi sniffer does not call for a significant amount of technical expertise and may be carried out with relative ease. If you are using the standalone device, which is compact and portable, all you need to do is push and hold down the main button, aim it in any direction where you wish to locate a wireless network, and then use the gadget. This will activate the gadget, and while it is looking for a signal, the device will display lights that revolve in a circular pattern. The indicator light will remain constant after it finds a wireless signal. This means that it has detected a wireless network that is within a range of 300 feet of your device.

In the event that a signal cannot be found, the rotating lights will continue to do so, and it may be required to attempt to look in a different direction. If you are in an area where the wireless signal is poor, it is possible that it may be necessary to make adjustments to the antenna. WiFi sniffers that are add-ons to your mobile device do their functions in a manner that is analogous to that of the standalone device. Nonetheless, their specific capabilities change depending on the sort of mobile device that you are utilizing.

WiFi sniffer features

Just like there are many various brands of wireless devices available on the market, there are also many different brands of WiFi sniffers, each of which has functions that vary depending on the model of the device. While searching for a high-quality WiFi sniffer, one of the qualities you should look for is a device that is capable of avoiding interference from other electronic gadgets and appliances, such as mobile phones, Bluetooth devices, and microwave ovens. The better-grade devices will have the ability to capture a wireless signal regardless of the environment that they are placed in.

The most effective kind of WiFi sniffer often operates on the 2.4GHz frequency band and has the capacity to identify WiFi signals for both 802.11b and 802.11b/g. It needs to be easy to carry around with you, be convenient, and be small enough to fit in your pocket or laptop bag.

WiFi sniffers that have the qualities described above are also useful tools for usage in the house. Whether you are setting up a home office or Internet-ready gadgets, a WiFi sniffer can assist you in determining the areas of your home with the strongest wireless signal so that you can optimize the signal's capabilities and get the most out of your home office or devices.

Isn’t a WiFi sniffer illegal?

No. Stumbling across a wireless network by using a WiFi sniffer is a much simpler process than wireless sniffing, as the two terms refer to quite distinct activities. A WiFi sniffer's sole purpose is to discover the location of the nearest accessible wireless connection; however, it cannot actually join the network itself. Eavesdropping on conversations taking place inside of wireless networks is what's known as wireless sniffing, and it's a technique that's intended to break into a network. The former is permitted but the latter is not, particularly when it is utilized in the commission of illegal conduct.

On the other hand, wireless sniffing is entirely within the law when it is employed by IT employees to monitor network incursions on a business or government infrastructure. This is the case whether the infrastructure is owned by a private company or the government. Monitoring the information packets that are sent over a network is what's referred to as "intrusion detection," and it's used to protect sensitive data from being stolen by hackers and other malicious users of the internet.

There are a few businesses that have made it illegal for customers to use WiFi sniffers, which are devices that randomly search for available wifi networks. Instead, corporations are deploying apps that are based on directories and that can be allowed for usage by mobile employees as well as other people.

Hopefully, the material presented here will assist you in gaining a deeper comprehension of WiFi sniffers and the functions they perform. In short, they’ll help you save time and stress while maximizing the signal strength of your home wireless network.

How WiFi sniffers work?

May 18, 2023 — 6 min read

The majority of individuals don’t put much thought into the kind of web browser that they use. Typically, laptops or smartphones are equipped with a default browser like Microsoft Edge or Safari, leading people to assume it's the finest or sole choice available. Nevertheless, there are several other browser options to select from.

Your web browser is the medium through which you communicate with the majority of the internet, resulting in a substantial amount of personal information being managed by it. It is essential to ensure that you are using a secure browser since this data is highly valuable.

So, how much is your data worth? To marketing firms — quite a bit. Companies can sell your browsing data to third parties for profit, and that's just the start of it. Hackers are always on the lookout for people who are not using a secure browser, and exposing personal data in this manner can be incredibly risky.

Your browser and its ability to protect your privacy and security are critical. As a result, let's go through the top five secure browsers for 2023.


In 2023, Firefox is considered one of the best web browsers as it is secure, open-source, and offers numerous customization options. Its high level of customization makes it an excellent choice for advanced users, yet it is also user-friendly, making it a great option for non-tech-savvy users.

Firefox blocks third-party tracking cookies automatically, resulting in faster browsing speeds than other browsers that allow websites to track user activity, like Chrome. It also features various security measures, such as anti-phishing and malware protection, minimal data collection, automatic tracker blocking, and encrypted browsing with DNS over HTTPS (DoH). It is also compatible with third-party security extensions.

Firefox's anti-phishing protections are impressive, as it is highly effective in detecting risky and known phishing sites when tested against a database of such sites. Additionally, Firefox's DoH protections encrypt search queries with CloudFlare or NextDNS's encrypted DNS servers, making it challenging for third parties to steal browsing history.

Although many highly secure browsers compromise convenience for protection, Firefox is simple to use and provides advanced security features. Users can adjust security settings, anti-tracker settings, and anti-phishing protections according to their preferences. Firefox is compatible with Windows, macOS, Android, and iOS.

Tor Browser

In terms of user privacy, Tor Browser is the top choice; however, it is not as fast as most of its competitors.

The name "Tor" is derived from "The Onion Routing," a technology that hides the user's IP address by encrypting web traffic and routing it through multiple servers. As a result, before a user's computer can access a website, their traffic must first pass through Tor's secure server network. Tor has been shown to conceal user activity from ISPs, hackers, trackers, and even governments. The NSA was reportedly unable to hack into the Tor network, as stated in Edward Snowden's leaked documents. Tor Browser is banned in certain countries that censor the internet because it provides users with unrestricted access to the web.

Tor's data collection policy is minimally intrusive, as it only collects usage data to assess browser performance. Despite being an advanced browser, Tor Browser's interface is user-friendly, and it uses the same source code as Firefox, with minor variations. Users can even install most Firefox extensions into Tor Browser. However, browser extensions increase the likelihood of machine identification by network surveillance tools, so users who wish to remain as private as possible should avoid using them.

While Tor Browser is highly secure, its onion routing technology will slow down the internet connection, similar to the effect of using a VPN. When users' traffic bounces off multiple servers, their connection speed is adversely affected. Nonetheless, Tor may be the ideal choice for users with a reliable internet connection who is willing to trade some speed for high security. Tor Browser is compatible with Windows, Android, macOS, and Linux.


Brave is a web browser that offers a fast browsing experience and comes with built-in ad and tracker-blocking features. With its "Shields" feature, Brave can automatically block ads and trackers, which allows it to load websites much faster than other browsers. This feature also provides an added layer of protection by blocking malicious web scripts that may try to infiltrate your device. In addition, Brave automatically sets up HTTPS connections, which use a secure encryption protocol to protect user traffic.

One of Brave's standout features is its ability to use Tor technology in Private Browsing mode, which encrypts your traffic through the Tor network. This ensures that your browsing activity remains hidden not only from other users on your device but also from your ISP and other network spies.

Brave also has a unique ad-buying program called Brave Rewards, which allows users to earn BAT (a type of cryptocurrency) by viewing or clicking on sponsored ads. These BATs can then be transferred to the sites and content creators of your choice. This program offers a great revenue solution for content creators as Brave ads generate revenue without using trackers, selling user data, or pop-ups that interrupt the browsing experience. Brave is available for Windows, Android, iOS, macOS, and Linux.

Google Chrome

The reason why Google Chrome is the most popular browser in the world is that it is compatible with all major platforms and provides users with an excellent interface as well as thousands of useful extensions. Google, with its large number of staff and resources, constantly updates and patches Chrome more quickly than any other browser developer to patch network vulnerabilities, man-in-the-middle attacks, browser glitches, and exploitable security holes.

Chrome's Safe Browsing feature uses Google's extensive database of unsafe sites to flag suspicious web pages, which is updated daily and detects more phishing sites than most other browsers. Additionally, Chrome uses sandboxing to prevent malicious web scripts and invasive trackers from stealing data or hacking devices. Users can choose DNS over HTTPS (DoH) protection in Chrome's settings for added privacy and protection from ISPs, governments, and network-snooping hackers, which is turned on by default in Firefox but only requires a single click in Chrome.

It's important to mention that Chrome's tracker blocking is limited due to Google's reliance on web trackers to gather user data for advertisers. Chrome collects user data by default, and while much of this data is used to enhance Chrome's security, it's also shared within the entire Google ecosystem, including advertisers and potentially even governments. Despite this, Chrome has many trackers and ad-blocking plugins available for security-oriented users, such as Avira Safe Shopping. Although Chrome may be one of the most secure browsers, it's also one of the worst for user privacy. Google Chrome is available for Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, and Linux.

Microsoft Edge

Microsoft Edge is a vast improvement compared to its predecessor, Internet Explorer. Edge is a user-friendly, Chromium-based browser that boasts robust security tools, including Edge SmartScreen anti-phishing technology, which detects phishing sites more effectively than Chrome in tests.

In addition to its security features, Edge also offers a simple tracker-blocking system that has three levels: Basic, Balanced, and Strict. The Strict setting blocks most trackers and cookies, including those necessary for some sites to function. In contrast, the Balanced setting performed best in tests, detecting and blocking the most invasive cookies. This makes it much easier to manage online privacy than in Chrome, where the options are limited to

"Allow All," "Block Third-Party," and "Block All."

Like Chrome and Firefox, Edge now supports DNS over HTTPS by default, which enhances user privacy when browsing the web. Microsoft Edge is available for Windows, macOS, Android, and iOS.


It can be difficult to determine whether a browser is truly secure or not, but the browsers mentioned in this article offer a good level of privacy. While this is a great start, for the most secure browsing experience, I suggest using a combination of a secure browser and a virtual private network (VPN). A VPN adds an extra layer of protection to your online activity by encrypting your entire Internet connection, making it much more difficult for anyone to intercept your data or monitor your browsing habits.

By using a quality VPN, you can also hide your real location and appear to be browsing from a different location altogether. This can be especially useful for accessing content that may be restricted in your country or region. With a secure browser and a VPN, you can enjoy a more private and secure browsing experience, free from the prying eyes of hackers, governments, and other third parties that may be trying to track your online activity.

Best safety browsers in 2023

May 16, 2023 — 5 min read

In an era where cybercrime is rampant, businesses must take a proactive approach to safeguard their confidential information. In 2021 alone, over 118 million people have been affected by data breaches, and this number is expected to rise exponentially.

In this post, we’ll discuss some of the best practices for businesses to protect themselves from cyber threats.

Always have a back-up

A good backup system is one of the best ways to maintain computers’ security and protect your business’s data. Regularly backing up important files can help ensure that you don’t lose any information if a cyber incident or computer issue occurs. Here are some tips on how to effectively back up your data:

  • Use multiple backup methods. Have an effective backup system by using daily incremental backups to portable devices or cloud storage, end-of-week server backups, quarterly server backups, and yearly server backups. Remember to regularly check and test whether you can restore your data from these backups.
  • Use portable devices. Consider using external drives or portable devices such as USB sticks to store your data. Store the devices separately offsite, and make sure they are not connected to the computer when not in use to prevent malicious attacks.
  • Utilize cloud storage solutions. Cloud storage solutions are a great way of backing up all your important information. Choose a solution that provides encryption for transferring and storing your data and multi-factor authentication for access.
  • Practice safe backup habits. Make it a habit to regularly back up your data, not just once but multiple times throughout the week or month, depending on the type of information you’re backing up. Additionally, it’s important to practice safe backup habits, such as keeping your devices away from computers when not in use and regularly testing that your data is properly backed up.

Train your employees

To protect your business from cyber threats, educating your employees about the risks and how to stay safe is essential. Training should focus on identifying phishing emails, using strong passwords, and reporting any suspicious activity immediately to the IT department.

Ensure that everyone is up-to-date with the latest threats and strategies for protection by conducting regular cybersecurity training sessions with all of your employees. Provide helpful resources such as tips for creating secure passwords, methods for spotting phishing attempts, and steps for safely sharing confidential information online.

Putting this emphasis on education and training will help create an environment of alertness so that any potential risk can be identified quickly and addressed appropriately.

Password management

Weak passwords are one of the most common entry points for cyber attackers, so using a secure password and password manager is essential to keep your business safe.

A password manager is a tool that allows you to store and manage all your passwords securely, with only one strong master password needed to access them all. Here are some tips for creating strong passwords and using a reliable password manager:

  • Create strong passwords. Choose passwords that include numbers, symbols, upper-case letters, and lower-case letters. Avoid using personal information like birthdays or pet names in your passwords. Additionally, avoid using the same username/password combination for multiple accounts.
  • Use a password manager. A reliable password manager will help you create and store secure passwords. Be sure to select a trustworthy provider, as they will be responsible for protecting your data.

An on-premise password manager like Passwork is an excellent option for businesses that need to store passwords on their own servers. Passwork provides the advantage of having full control over your data and features like password sharing and a secure audit log.

  • Enable multi-factor authentication. Adding an extra layer of security to your accounts is easy with multi-factor authentication (MFA). MFA requires two or more pieces of evidence to authenticate the user's identity, such as passwords and biometric data. Most password managers can enable MFA for all your accounts, so be sure to take advantage of this feature.

Finally, make sure you update your passwords regularly and always keep them private. Following these tips will help ensure that you are protecting your business from cyber threats.

Securing your network

Using a Virtual Private Network (VPN) effectively protects your business's sensitive data and prevents unauthorized access to your network. A VPN creates an encrypted connection between your device and the internet, making it more difficult for hackers or malicious actors to intercept and access confidential information. Here are some tips on how to leverage a VPN for optimal security:

  • Research the best VPN providers for features that best suit the needs of your organization
  • Ensure that the provider meets industry standards such as AES 256-bit encryption
  • Set up two-factor authentication with users’ login credentials
  • Configure the VPN for reliable and secure connections
  • Monitor your network for any suspicious activity or unauthorized access attempts
  • Make sure to update the VPN software with new security patches regularly
  • Train users on the proper internet safety and best practices when using a VPN
  • Use an antivirus program and scan all devices connected to the network for malware threats

VPNs are not only important for protecting data and preventing unauthorized access but also for maintaining user privacy. By encrypting the data sent and received over the internet, your organization can ensure that any information stays secure and confidential.

Consistent vulnerability assessments are crucial

Organizations of all sizes must remain vigilant in mitigating cyber threats — and one of the best ways to do this is by conducting regular vulnerability assessments. This will help identify any potential weaknesses or vulnerabilities that could be used by malicious actors to gain access to your system, allowing you to patch and address them before they become a problem.

Here are a few steps to help get you started:

Develop an assessment plan for your organization

Before starting, it’s important to understand the scope and objectives of the vulnerability assessment. Define the overall goals and objectives before identifying any assets or systems that should be included in the assessment.

Identify and document threats

Once you have developed a plan, it’s time to begin searching for potential vulnerabilities within your system. You can use various open-source intelligence techniques, such as scanning public databases and researching known security issues with similar software versions or operating systems that are present in your system.

Create a testing environment

After potential threats have been identified and documented, you should create a safe testing environment to validate the vulnerability assessment results. Doing so will help ensure that any tests conducted do not adversely affect production systems.

Run automated scans

Following the creation of your secure test environment, it’s time to run automated scans on your organization's target systems or assets. This should include both internal and external scanning tools, such as port scanners, web application scanners, or configuration management tools, depending on the scope of the assessment.

Analyze scan results

Once the automated scans have been completed, it’s time to analyze the results and identify any potential issues or vulnerabilities. Assess any weaknesses present in order to prioritize and address them more effectively.

Develop a remediation plan

After identifying potential security issues, you should develop a remediation plan based on the risk level of each issue. This could include patching vulnerable systems, implementing new security measures, or restricting access to certain areas of your system, depending on the severity of the threat.

By conducting regular vulnerability assessments, organizations can stay ahead of cyber threats and ensure their systems remain secure.

Bottom line

Protecting your business from cyber threats should be a top priority for any organization. With the increasing prevalence of cybercrime and data breaches, implementing effective cybersecurity practices is more important than ever.

By regularly backing up important files, training employees on identifying and reporting potential threats, using a secure password manager, utilizing a VPN, and conducting consistent vulnerability assessments, businesses can significantly reduce their risk of falling victim to cyber-attacks.

5 ways to keep your business safe from cyber threats

Apr 13, 2023 — 5 min read

In recent years, the issue of user privacy has become more critical than ever before. With the rise of social media and other online platforms, companies are collecting vast amounts of user data, which can be used for various purposes. While some of these purposes may be benign, such as improving the user experience or providing targeted advertising, others may be more nefarious, such as selling user data to third parties or engaging in targeted surveillance.

There are now many apps that are activated by code words — they are called " marker words". These words can activate the listening function on your gadget covertly and completely invisibly. It can be not only "OK, Google" or "Hi, Siri", but also other completely unrelated words or sounds.

Perhaps you may have noticed Instagram advertising something you recently talked to your friends about even in real-time without holding your phone. If so, you know you're being bugged.

So, who's eavesdropping on us?


Facebook reportedly hired hundreds of third-party contractors to transcribe voice messages but stopped the practice in July 2019 after it was made public. The contractors were not always clear on why they were listening to certain conversations and did not understand how the messages were obtained. Facebook did not inform its users about this development, which involved the potential listening of personal voicemails by unauthorized individuals.


Microsoft's employees were reported to have listened to personal audio recordings made through Cortana and Skype Translator services. However, Microsoft did not deny this claim and instead included the information in the company's privacy policy. Microsoft believes in maintaining an honest relationship with its users and believes they have the right to know that their conversations may be overheard. Nonetheless, Microsoft did not previously disclose this information to its users, and it is possible that the company decided to proactively share the information as they had been listening to audio recordings for some time. This is in contrast to other companies that faced privacy violations but did not disclose their actions to their users.


It has been reported that contractors who test Apple's Siri voice assistant for accuracy may be listening in on users' private conversations. It should be noted that Siri can be activated by more than just the phrase "Hey, Siri" and can be triggered by similar-sounding words, background noise, or hand movements. This has resulted in Siri being inadvertently activated during private conversations, leading to the collection of personal information and recordings of private conversations, including those between doctors during commercial transactions. These recordings are often accompanied by data that can reveal the location or personal contacts of the users. Apple representatives claim to be working to address these concerns in order to protect users' personal information.


Over one thousand Amazon contractors are listening to voice recordings made in the homes and offices of Echo voice assistant owners. These contractors are required to sign non-disclosure agreements and are not allowed to discuss the program publicly. They work nine-hour shifts and analyze up to 1,000 sound recordings per shift, but even if they have concerns about what they hear, they are required to adhere to the non-disclosure policy. Amazon claims to take the security and privacy of its customer's personal information seriously, and employees do not have access to information that could identify a person or account directly. It is important to note that users can disable the use of their personal voice records for the development of new features in Amazon's Alexa privacy settings.


Google employs experts to listen to the voice commands given by users to its voice assistant. These recordings are made after the voice assistant has heard the phrase "Ok, Google" and can be made on smartphones using Google Assistant or on the Google Home smart speaker. Google shares snippets of these recordings between users and linguists around the world to improve the voice assistant, but claims to have access to no more than 0.2% of all user commands. The company has prohibited employees from transcribing conversations or other extraneous sounds. However, in June 2019, it was reported that a significant leak of audio recordings of users occurred, with over a thousand recordings, including personal conversations between parents and children, addresses, and work calls being exposed. Some recordings were made accidentally due to the assistant being activated by mistake. Google attributed the leak to the actions of one linguist and claimed to be investigating the matter.


Despite the concerns that these data collection practices raise, companies often argue that they are necessary to improve user experience and provide more personalized services.

However, many users remain skeptical of these claims and are increasingly concerned about the potential for abuse. For example, data breaches can expose user data to hackers and other malicious actors, potentially putting users at risk of identity theft and other forms of cybercrime. Additionally, governments and other organizations may use user data to engage in targeted surveillance, raising concerns about civil liberties and individual privacy.

In response to these concerns, governments and regulatory bodies have taken steps to regulate the collection and use of user data. In the European Union, the General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) have strengthened data privacy laws and given users greater control over their data. In the United States, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) has similarly sought to protect user privacy by requiring companies to disclose what data they collect and allowing users to opt out of data sharing.

Despite these efforts, however, the issue of user privacy remains a contentious one. As technology continues to advance, companies will undoubtedly find new ways to collect and utilize user data, raising new concerns about privacy and security. It is therefore crucial that users remain vigilant and informed about the data collection practices of companies they interact with, and for governments and regulatory bodies to continue to monitor and regulate these practices to protect user privacy.

Are companies spying on their users in 2023?

Mar 28, 2023 — 5 min read

People frequently utilize various VPN servers at work. Off-the-shelf options are good, but we've come to learn that a personal VPN offers substantial benefits. To appreciate the benefits of creating your own VPN server over purchasing one, consider why VPNs are used in the first place:

•  To prevent others from intercepting your lines of communication

•  To circumvent access limitations to a specific resource in your own nation or a foreign one

•  Conceal personal information from the Internet provider (the owner of the WI-FI access point)

•  Leave your present location unidentified (don't forget time zones — this is the indicator that may readily pinpoint your location)

Everything is quite straight-forward here, so let's get down to the interesting stuff: what are the advantages of utilizing your own service, and how should you go about establishing one?

Well, today you’re in for a treat — to answer these questions, we’ve put together a checklist with step-by-step instructions for setting up and configuring a VPN server.

Advantages of Using a Personal VPN Server

1. Bypassing blocks

Several countries attempt to fight VPNs by blocking them. But, if you use your own VPN, it will not appear in the main list of providers and will almost surely avoid blocks.

2. There are no captchas

All well-known services will request that you choose horses from a set of photographs, locate traffic lights, or identify a word in a picture. Why is this the case? Several others are using a ready-made VPN server at the same time as we are. Consequently, the website will suspect such traffic and assault you with captchas. When you use your own VPN server, however, this problem is avoided since you will have a unique IP address that will look like an ordinary user.

3. High speed

Off-the-shelf VPN servers often have low bandwidth since they typically don't have time to grow their servers and networks for a big number of customers. With a self-hosted resource, you’ll have all the bandwidth you could possibly need.

4. The ability to send all computer traffic through a VPN, not just browser traffic

5.  No need to install third-party software

As you can see, having your own server solves the majority of the problems associated with using a VPN.

Checklist for creating your own VPN server

Take the example of DigitalOcean and its Droplet server.


If you already have a DigitalOcean account, you may go to the next stage. If not, you must first register (all the steps are intuitive, don’t worry).

Create a new Droplet that will function as a VPN server

Choose a data center from which you intend to connect to the internet. I selected to work with Frankfurt since it is physically closer to my country of residency, which improves working speed.

Choose Marketplace, and Docker on Ubuntu in the Image column. Finally, in the Size column, choose the subscription plan that suits you.

Next, put a name in Hostname, such as ‘vpn-server’. This has no effect and is simply for your convenience. Next, click the Create Droplet button.

Wait for the server to be created. This might take up to a minute. Following that, you will be given your server's IP address.

Connect to the SSH server

Launch Terminal on MacOS/Linux (or PowerShell/putty on Windows) and connect to our server through SSH using the root username and the IP address of our server.

This can be done with the help of:

ssh root@{your-ip-address}

> enter your password

After that, you have to connect.

Create a docker-compose.yml file

Just copy the code from this website and paste it into your file. This is your server configuration file.

You may create a file directly over SSH using console text editors (nano/vim) or with an SFTP client. I used SSH to access the console editor.

In the same SSH window, input the following:

> nano docker-compose.yml

Paste the content. In the added text, change the following parameters for yourself:

•  my-shared-secret — your secret word

•  my-username — your personal login

•  my-password — your password

Take note of how straightforward it is — there are just 14 lines in the file that we want.

Exit by pressing Ctrl+X, then Y, and then press Enter.

Run the container with the recently created server

Use the same SSH window in which we just created the file.

> docker compose up -d

Congratulations! Your VPN server is up and running. So, how do you connect it?

Connect to the created VPN server

We recommend using IPsec because the clients for this VPN are already built into MacOS/Windows and you don't have to install anything locally. You just need to create a new VPN connection with the following parameters:

•  Type: IPSec

•  Server address: enter the IP address of the server

•  Account name: write my-username (or the one you changed it to)

•  Password: add my-password (or the one you changed it to)

•  Shared Secret: write my-shared-secret (or the variant you changed earlier)

For MacOS, you don't need to install anything, just configure it like this:

For Windows, these settings will look a little different:

Unfortunately, Windows is not so simple and you will have to surf the registry and allow NAT-T.

For Linux users, there is also a screenshot with the required settings (I used them in Ubuntu 22.04):

Before setting up, you need to install the network-manager-l2tp-gnome package. This is done through the console:

> sudo apt-get install network-manager-l2tp-gnome

You can also connect from your phone, you don't need to install anything else. The settings on the iPhone look like this:

And that’s it — you're done! Connect and check the IP address, for example, on Whoer via the link. Now, for the whole Internet, you are physically located in the region where you created your VPN server, and the IP is the IP of the server. It's not as scary, time-consuming, or expensive as you might think.

Security recommendations

When it comes to the security of your server, I would, as a final thought, recommend:

•  Using an SSH key instead of a password

•  Changing the SSH-port from 22 to any other

•  Using a complex password and Shared-secret (preferably a randomly generated string)

How to create your very own VPN server

Mar 20, 2023 — 4 min read

Natural language processing (NLP) has made considerable strides in recent years, which has led to the creation of effective language models such as ChatGPT. ChatGPT was developed by OpenAI and makes use of cutting-edge machine learning algorithms to produce text answers that appear to have been written by humans. Concerns about its safety and how it may be abused are beginning to surface as its usage becomes more widespread. We’re aiming to provide a complete overview of ChatGPT's security by delving into its safety features as well as the possible threats that are involved with using it.

How ChatGPT works

It is vital to have an understanding of how ChatGPT operates in order to fully appreciate the security features that it offers. In its most fundamental form, ChatGPT has predicated on a deep learning architecture referred to as the Transformer. This design gives the model the ability to discover patterns and correlations in massive volumes of text data. Because the model has been trained on such a large dataset, which includes web pages, books, and articles, it is able to provide replies to user inputs that are pertinent to the context of those inputs.

Security measures in ChatGPT

OpenAI has put in place a number of preventative safeguards to guarantee the confidentiality and morality of the users of ChatGPT. These precautions include the following:

  1. Content Filtering: OpenAI has a content screening mechanism in place to prevent the creation of content that is unsuitable or potentially dangerous. This technique eliminates potentially harmful information by employing both computerized algorithms and human moderators, one after the other.
  2. User Authentication: Applications that use ChatGPT require user authentication, which restricts access to the system to only those who have been granted permission to do so. This precaution helps stop unauthorized access and lowers the possibility of harmful usage.
  3. Privacy Measures: OpenAI has a strong commitment to protecting the privacy of its users and ensures the safety of all data throughout storage and processing. In order to secure the personal information of its users, the company abides by severe data privacy requirements, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
  4. Continuous Improvement: OpenAI is constantly looking for feedback from users in order to enhance the safety and security functions of ChatGPT. The organization is better able to recognize possible dangers and take preventative measures to mitigate them if it keeps its lines of communication with the user community open and active.

Potential risks and misuse

Despite the security measures in place, ChatGPT is not without risks. Some of the potential dangers associated with its use include:

  1. Generating Misinformation: ChatGPT has the ability to create information that is either purposefully or accidentally misleading or erroneous. This danger is caused by the fact that the model is dependent on training data, which may contain information that is inaccurate or biased.
  2. Amplifying Harmful Content: Even if there are methods in place to screen out potentially hazardous information, there is still the risk that some of it may get through. It is possible that as a consequence of this, hate speech, the ideology of extreme conservatism, and other harmful stuff may be amplified.
  3. Privacy Breaches: The risk of data breaches continues to exist despite the implementation of stringent privacy protections. There is always the risk that cybercriminals would try to acquire unauthorized access to user data, which might result in privacy breaches.
  4. Social Engineering Attacks: ChatGPT's ability to generate human-like responses can be exploited by bad actors to conduct social engineering attacks. These attacks can involve impersonating trusted entities or individuals to manipulate users into revealing sensitive information or performing actions that compromise their security.

Mitigating risks

To minimize the risks associated with ChatGPT, both developers and users can take proactive steps. Some recommendations include:

  1. Regularly updating security measures: OpenAI has to regularly update and enhance its security procedures, taking into account comments from users and tackling new risks as they emerge.
  2. User education: It is essential to provide consumers with education about possible hazards and to encourage appropriate usage. This involves increasing awareness about disinformation, issues around privacy, and assaults using social engineering.
  3. Strengthening of content filtering: To successfully detect and remove hazardous information, OpenAI has to continue to improve the algorithms that power its content filtering system. This should be done by combining machine learning with human moderation.
  4. Collaboration with researchers and policymakers: OpenAI should actively collaborate with researchers, industry experts, and policymakers to develop best practices, guidelines, and regulations that ensure the responsible and secure use of ChatGPT. This collaboration can contribute to a broader understanding of the potential risks and help create a safer AI ecosystem.


The ChatGPT language model is a strong one that has a tremendous amount of promise for a wide range of applications. Although OpenAI has taken a significant number of precautions to assure its safety, there is still the possibility of threats. It is possible to significantly reduce the dangers associated with using ChatGPT so long as appropriate precautions are taken, such as providing users with adequate training, enhancing the algorithms used to filter material, and encouraging collaboration between academics and policymakers.

While utilizing ChatGPT or any other technology that relies on AI, it is essential for users to stay aware and practice care at all times. When it comes to ensuring the safe and responsible utilization of these effective instruments, having an awareness of the possible dangers and taking preventative measures to lessen or eliminate them may go a long way. By doing so, we will be able to use the promise of ChatGPT while also efficiently addressing concerns around security.

How secure is ChatGPT? Unveiling the safety measures and potential risks

Mar 3, 2023 — 7 min read

The digital era has provided us with numerous advantages. Handheld devices that we carry in our pockets allow us to connect instantaneously with people all over the world, shop for necessities, manage our accounts, conduct our jobs, and so much more.

However, because the internet has become so ingrained in our daily lives, it has also become a massive source of risk. Criminals seeking to steal money or information and endanger national security and stability have more tools than ever to use against us.

As a result, governments must examine cyberspace risks and take action to keep their citizens secure. However, as is often the case, certain governments and general society do better than others.

It is critical to learn which countries are doing well and which are not, as this can help you understand the dangers you encounter when traveling and which policies are effective and not.

Today, we've compiled a list of the five most cyber-secure countries and the five least cyber-secure countries.

The top 5 cyber-secure countries

After reviewing several studies on the cybersecurity of nations throughout the world, we found the following five to be the best:

United States

While cybercrime is a problem in the United States, it is also true that the country has the greatest infrastructure to combat it and most cybersecurity companies in the world call it home. When it comes to cybercrime, the United States is cooperative and somewhat structured in its efforts.

The Global Cybersecurity Index granted it a flawless score, although there are a few flaws. The only improvement we could mention is taking better efforts to inform the population of potential cybersecurity threats. Only 2.89 percent of mobile devices are infected with malware, and even fewer are afflicted with banking or ransomware trojans. Attacks are low across the board, propelling the United States higher in prior years' rankings.


Finland has earned a spot on our list due to its outstanding legislative response to cybercrime. It also has the lowest mobile malware infection rate, at 1.06%. There are also no harmful mailings, and targeted attacks from all angles are rare.

In general, Finland is doing an excellent job, and the government has recently allocated funding and resources to assist businesses in strengthening their cyber defenses in response to a more hazardous environment. This is an effort that we would want to see more governments officially support.

However, because every country has the chance to improve, we would want to see the government become more organized in its battle against cybercrime, both globally and locally. Powerful legislative measures and technological capabilities can only be fully exploited if the action plan prioritizes cybercrime reduction.

United Kingdom

Another high scorer and a country that has continuously been one of the finest in the world when it comes to cybersecurity, the United Kingdom comes in third place in our rankings.

Mobile malware infects a small percentage of devices (2.26 percent), banking and ransomware trojans are minimal if not nonexistent, and the United Kingdom is the source of very few cyberattacks globally. By all accounts, it has a calming effect on the global cybersecurity community.

In some ways, the United Kingdom resembles the United States in terms of its strengths and weaknesses, as while the legal framework and efforts are generally excellent, we would like to see more government efforts to educate its citizens. The best efforts in the world will be in vain if the average person allows malware in through their front door.

South Korea

The Republic of Korea, a country noted for its exceptional technical achievements in the area of computers, is one of the top countries and the leader in the Asia-Pacific region.

Why? It has a robust regulatory structure in place to combat cybercrime, and the technological capacity to do so and is typically cooperative in international efforts. It may benefit from an additional organizational effort to fully leverage its capabilities, but this does not diminish the country's good effect on global cybersecurity.

However, improvements in total infected devices can be made when compared to top scorers. Banking malware and Trojans are an issue, and malware infects around 3.19 percent of mobile devices. South Korean devices are regarded as targets, and this must be addressed regardless of how ineffectual the majority of attempts are.


Denmark rounds out our top five, which should come as no surprise. It is technologically advanced, has a solid regulatory framework in place to combat cybercrime, and is well-organized in dealing with threats and ensuring that individuals and businesses are prepared.

The infection rate of devices across the country reflects these efforts. Only 1.33 percent of mobile devices are infected, and Denmark ranks at the top in almost every infection metric.

Studies continuously show zero infected devices, be it with mobile ransomware or mobile banking trojans.

While its broad diplomatic attitude may prevent it from taking substantial steps, Denmark would benefit from a more coordinated worldwide approach to combating cybercrime. It is a worldwide problem because cyber thieves do not recognize or respect boundaries.

Honorable mentions


China may not be at the top of the list, but the Chinese government is actively working to strengthen cybersecurity.

According to them, a large-scale strategy for reorganizing the country's industry has been planned for this. As a result, the following will be developed within the framework of this program:

•  5 safety laboratories

•  3-5 national industrial security parks

•  10 demonstration sites for innovative products

•  A number of enterprises with international competitiveness in the industry

The Chinese government has predicted that by 2025, cybersecurity investment will equal 22 billion dollars each year.

The top 5 least cyber-secure countries


Algeria is still a troubled country in terms of cybersecurity. There is minimal organizational and government support for cybersecurity measures, and the country is fairly isolated in terms of joint efforts (or overall efforts are simply ineffective).

When you combine these issues with high infection rates, it's easy to see why it's ranked first. Malware-infected phones account for 21.97 percent of all phones. There is a banking virus issue as well as a crypto mining issue. Web-based malware has infected a total of 6.22 devices.

It will take time and effort to address Algeria's cybersecurity issues, and we are not seeing any progress in this regard.


Iran has not been performing well in terms of cybersecurity in previous years, and recent times have been particularly harmful to the country. Infection rates are exceptionally high, with the highest incidence of mobile malware infection worldwide (30.29 percent). 1.6 percent of consumers were targeted by banking malware, while 29.06 percent were infected by local malware. Other sorts of assaults are less common, but they continue to be a problem.

These difficulties might be addressed with patience and care, but the country's leadership is not as cooperative in international efforts as it could be, and the framework and infrastructure are not comparable to those found in the industrialized world. All of these variables combine to make it a hazardous environment for your device.


While Tanzania has made tremendous progress in addressing its cybersecurity vulnerabilities, there are still certain organizational flaws that cause problems and must be addressed.

This alone would not have qualified it for this list, but according to the most recent available statistics, it had one of the highest infection rates for devices worldwide. Although very recent data is unavailable, Tanzania formerly had a mobile infection rate of 28.03 percent and a PC infection rate of 14.7 percent.


Tajikistan, for all intents and purposes, does not have a cybersecurity apparatus of any sort. As things are, there is limited technological assistance, minimal legislative measures enforcing cybersecurity, and absolutely no cooperation measures, capacity, or progress. People are on their own when it comes to cybersecurity, and the country would be higher on this list if it weren't for the fact that other countries have more infected devices.

Despite this, there aren't many infected devices, maybe because hackers don't see the country as a key target. Despite this, 41.16 percent of computers are vulnerable to malware attacks, and further concerns loom if more gadgets enter the nation. If you are in Tajikistan, be cautious with your equipment and take precautions to protect yourself.


Pakistan has a cybersecurity concern, with 21.18 percent of PCs vulnerable to local malware attacks and 9.96 percent of mobile devices already infected. While infection rates are lower than they were a few years ago, there is still a lot of work to be done, and anyone visiting should take additional precautionary measures.

Pakistan is also a country that is typically uncooperative on an international level when it comes to dealing with cybercrime, which does not help given that it is not a technology powerhouse like some other nations with a more isolationist approach. Things are unlikely to improve in the near future.

Dishonorable mentions


Vietnam has made significant progress in terms of its cybercrime framework, but it still has one of the highest rates of infected devices in the world.

Malware infects many computers, and 9.04 percent of mobile devices. To lower the risk of infection, the government must identify remedies and act upon them.


We hope you now have a better understanding of the global cybersecurity environment and what makes one country more cyber-safe than another. Of course, it is preferable to avoid going to countries with poor defenses, but if you find yourself in one of these areas, commit to good digital practices and you should be secure no matter where you are.

Understand the risk: the best and worst countries for cybersecurity