Topic

Security

A collection of 44 issues
Latest — Jan 12, 2023

Of course you want to keep your data safe. So why are so many security precautions frequently overlooked? Many accounts, for example, are protected by weak passwords, making it easy for hackers to do their work. There is a fine line between selecting a password that no one can guess and selecting a password that is easy to remember. As a result, we will examine this topic in depth today and ensure that you no longer need to click on the "lost password" link.

What exactly is a strong password?

So let's begin with a definition. A secure password is one that cannot be guessed or broken by an intruder.

Computers are utilized by hackers in order to try out various combinations of letters, numbers, and symbols. Passwords that are only a few characters long and consist entirely of letters and digits are easy for modern computers to crack in a couple of seconds. Because of this, it is vital to utilize robust combinations of capital and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters in one password. There is a minimum length requirement of 12 characters for passwords, although using a longer password is strongly encouraged.

To summarize the attributes of a secure password, they are as follows:

•  At least 12 characters are required. The more complicated your password, the better.

•  Upper and lower case letters, numbers, and special characters are included. Such passwords are more difficult to crack.

•  Does not contain keyboard paths

•  It is not based on your personal information

•  Each of your accounts has its own password

You have undoubtedly observed that a variety of websites "care" about the security level of your password. When you are making an account, you will frequently see tooltips that remind you to include a particular amount of characters, as well as numbers and letters. Weak passwords have a far higher chance of being disapproved by the system. Keep in mind that, for reasons related to your security, you should never use the same password for several accounts.

A secure password should be unique

You may use a strong password for all of your accounts after you've created one. However, doing so will leave you more exposed to assaults. If a hacker obtains your password, they will be able to access whatever account you used it for, including email, social media, and work accounts.

According to surveys, many people use the same password because it is easier to remember. Don't worry, there are several tools available to assist you with managing multiple passwords. We'll get to them later.

While adding special characters in passwords is an excellent approach to increase their security, not all accounts accept all characters. However, in most scenarios, the following are used: ! " #% & *, / : | $ ; ': _? ().

Here are some examples of strong passwords that make use of special characters:

•  P7j12$# eBT1cL@Kfg

•  $j2kr^ALpr!Kf#ZjnGb#

Ideas for creating a strong password

Fortunately, there are several methods for creating unique and secure passwords for each of your accounts. Let's go over each one in detail:

1. Use a password generator/password manager

If you don't have the time to come up with secure passwords, a password generator that can also serve as a manager is a very simple and straightforward solution that you may use.

2. Choose a phrase, not a word

Passwords are significantly less secure than passphrases since they are often lengthier and more difficult to guess or crack. Instead of a word, pick a phrase and use the first letters, digits, and punctuation from that phrase to generate an apparently random combination of characters. Experiment with different wording and punctuation.

Here are some examples of how the passphrases  technique may be used to generate secure passwords:

•  I first went to Disneyland when I was four years old and it made me happy: I1stw2DLwIw8yrs&immJ

•  My friend Matt ate six donuts at a bakery cafe and it cost him £10: MfMa6d@tbc&ich£10

3. Pick a more unique option

Open a dictionary or book and select a random word, or better yet, many. Combine them with numbers and symbols to make it far more difficult for a hacker to decipher.

As an example:

•  Sand, fork, smoke, okay — Sand%fork9smoke/okay37

4. Experiment with phrases and quotes

If you need a password that is difficult for others to guess but easy for you to remember, try variants on a phrase or statement that means something to you. Simply choose a memorable sentence and replace parts of the letters with numbers and symbols.

For example:

•  “For the first time in forever”: Disney’s Frozen: 4da1stTymein4eva-Frozen

5. Make use of emojis

You may always use emoticons to add symbols to your passwords without making them difficult to remember. You can't add emojis, but you can attempt emoticons made out of punctuation marks, characters, and/or numbers.

For example:

•  \_(ツ)_/¯

•  (>^_^)> <(^_^<)

•  (~.~) (o_O)

What should I do after I have created a password?

1. Set passwords for specific accounts

You'll still need to generate a unique password for each of your accounts once you've created a strong password that you can remember. Instead of creating several new ones, you may include the name of the platform you use at the end. For example, if your password was nHd3#pHAuFP8, just add the word EMa1l to the end of your email address to get nHd3#pHAuFP8EMa1l.

2. Make your password a part of your muscle memory

If you want to be able to recall your password, typing it out several times can help you do so. You will be able to memorize information far more easily as a result of the muscle memory that you will develop.

How to keep your passwords safe?

1. Choose a good password manager

Use a trustworthy password manager whether you're setting your own safe passwords or looking for an internet service to handle it for you. It creates, saves, and manages all of your passwords in a single safe online account. All you have to do is put all your account passwords in the application and then safeguard them with one "master password". This means you just have to remember a single strong password.

2. Use two-factor authentication

You've heard it before, but we'll say it again. Two-factor authentication (2FA) adds an additional level of protection. Even if someone steals your password, you can prevent them from accessing your account. This is often a one-time code supplied to you by text message or other means. Receiving an SMS, by the way, is not the most secure method since a hacker might obtain your mobile phone number in a SIM swap fraud and gain access to your verification code.

Apps using two-factor authentication are far more secure. Google Authenticator, for example, or Microsoft Authenticator.

3. Passwords should not be saved on your phone, tablet, or computer

Although it might not be immediately visible, this is a common approach for people to save their passwords. That should not be done. Your files, emails, messenger conversations, and notes may all be hacked.

4. Keep your password confidential

Even if you completely trust the person to whom you are handing your password, sending it in a text message or email is risky. Even if you speak it aloud or write it down on paper, someone who is interested can overhear you and take notes behind you.

How to create a secure password

Jan 10, 2023 — 4 min read

Ransomware assaults are something that all of us have been keeping an eye on for some time. According to the most recent findings, over 21 percent of companies throughout the world were victims of ransomware attacks in 2022. 43% of these had a substantial influence on the way in which their business activities were carried out.

It’s true that cybercrime is on the rise, and those who commit these crimes are going after both individuals and businesses. In order to maintain a competitive advantage, it is essential to have a solid understanding of the types of cyber threats that will be prevalent in 2023.

The purpose of this article is to familiarize you with the most important developments in the field of cybersecurity that are expected to take place in 2023. There are a lot of different things to keep an eye on here, from emerging malware to security solutions based on artificial intelligence. In this section, we will discuss the potential effects of these trends on the future of cybersecurity and the steps you can take to better defend yourself.

1. The Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud security

It's critical to stay up to date on the newest cybersecurity developments in an ever-changing technological context. As more firms utilize cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) technology, the importance of adequate security measures grows.

When it comes to IoT and cloud security, it is critical to recognize the particular dangers that these technologies entail. One of the most serious concerns about IoT devices, for example, is that they are frequently "always on," leaving them exposed to external assaults. Similarly, if security mechanisms are not adequately established, cloud services might be accessible to hackers.

It is critical to have robust security procedures for your IoT devices and cloud services in order to keep your organization secure. This includes adopting strong passwords on all devices, enabling multi-factor authentication for access control, and ensuring that any data saved in the cloud is encrypted.

As businesses and consumers rely more on cloud computing and software solutions, the requirement for effective security becomes even more critical. When compared to traditional on-premises solutions, SaaS security solutions provide rapid scale-up or scale-out based on demand and cost savings. These solutions are also well suited for working with remote or dispersed teams where several business components may be located all over the world.

Data protection, identity and access management, web application firewalls, and mobile device security are all available through Security as a Service (SECaaS) solutions. They also provide managed services, which allow customers to delegate the monitoring and maintenance of their cloud security systems to qualified specialists. This helps guard against dangers like malware and ransomware while also keeping businesses up to date on the newest security developments.

3. Increased security for remote and hybrid employees

As the world continues to migrate to remote and hybrid work arrangements, cybersecurity must change to meet these new needs. Organizations must safeguard their systems and train their staff with cyberthreat defenses as their dependence on technology and access to sensitive data grows.

Multi-factor authentication (MFA), which requires multiple authentication stages to validate a user's identity before giving access to systems or data, is one security protocol that organizations should consider using. MFA can offer an extra degree of security against attackers who use stolen credentials to gain access to accounts.

Businesses should also consider adopting rules and processes to ensure the security of their workers' devices. This may involve offering safe antivirus software and encrypted virtual private networks (VPNs) for remote connectivity to employees. Employees must also be trained on the significance of using strong and unique passwords for each account, alongside the risks of connecting to public networks.

4. Machine learning and artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence and machine learning have grown in popularity in the realm of cybersecurity in recent years. AI and machine learning (ML) offer automated threat detection and enhanced security processes, making them effective instruments in the battle against cyberattacks. Organizations may employ AI and machine learning to proactively detect and avoid dangers as these technologies evolve.

AI and machine learning can assist in the rapid and accurate analysis of vast volumes of data, enabling more effective threat identification and prevention. For example, AI may detect harmful or suspicious network activities, such as increased traffic from a certain source or trends in user behavior. Organizations can also use machine learning algorithms to identify abnormalities and prioritize warnings that may signal a possible breach.

Furthermore, AI and machine learning can automate key cybersecurity operations like patch management, malware detection, and compliance checks. Organizations can save time and money that would otherwise be spent on manual processes. Furthermore, the application of AI and machine learning may assist businesses in lowering the risk of false positives and ensuring that only the most critical security incidents are highlighted.

5. Creating a Safe Culture

Businesses in today's environment must cultivate a culture of safety. Security cannot be handled after the fact or as a one-time job. It should be the organization's fundamental value, ingrained in all parts of its operations. This implies that everyone in the business must be informed of current cybersecurity trends and understand how to secure their data.

Employee training and checks and balances should be part of a safe culture. All personnel should be trained in the fundamentals of Internet security, as well as how to utilize systems and software safely. Policies, systems, and processes should be evaluated on a regular basis to ensure they are in compliance with the most up-to-date security guidelines.

Conclusion

As technology advances, cybersecurity risks and patterns will alter. Businesses must keep ahead of the curve by monitoring emerging trends and updating their security measures as needed. Organizations can secure their data and networks from intruders by staying up to date with the newest 5 cybersecurity trends in 2023.

Organizations may maintain the security of their data by keeping with the times on trends and implementing the required safeguards. Furthermore, they should work to educate their personnel on the need to adhere to best practices in cybersecurity. This will aid in the creation of a secure environment and reduce the likelihood of hacking.

5 key cybersecurity trends to watch in 2023

Jan 10, 2023 — 4 min read

The film industry in general isn't recognized for its commitment to truth, and Hollywood's depiction of biometric technology is no exception. The use of technologies such as fingerprint scanners, face recognition software, and iris recognition technology has become increasingly frequent in a variety of films to portray dramatic and high-tech images of the future.

Let's take a more in-depth look at the way biometrics are portrayed in movies, and what of what we see there is science fiction and what is a reality that most people probably know very little about.

Biometrics in Hollywood blockbusters

First, we ought to define biometrics and how biometric characteristics may be used to identify people. Biometrics refers to the identification of a person utilizing a character's unique physical and behavioral features. Each individual has some quantitative and fixed markers that do not vary over time or alter very minimally. These signs are so distinct that they may identify one individual from another.

In addition to the well-known DNA, fingerprints, and face, unique biometric characteristics include the pupil/iris of the eye, palm print, hand print, scent, "pattern" of veins on the fingers and palm, and so on.

Many biometric parameters of a person may be used by modern technology for identifying people, but they vary in cost, speed, and accuracy of usage. Biometric technologies are often used to control access to important objects or to identify criminals. These aspects are well-represented in films, including, of course, Bond movies.

Skyfall

In one of the Bond films — "Skyfall", a security camera in the London Underground is used to search for an individual’s face.

The film shows how the biometric identification system scans and validates faces with security cameras before recommending the "best fit" solutions. Bond was readily located since his face was uncovered, he was facing the crowd, and the camera easily recognized him. However, the situation was more complex while looking for an intruder among the crowd – in a hat pulled practically over the eyes, it is nearly impossible to recognize a person. To calculate its algorithm, the system must "see" the entire face (which includes data such as the distance between the eyes, the distance from the eyes to the lips, etc.). The technology recognizes the intruder when he raises his head and the camera "sees" his eyes.

It should be underlined that this is not only possible, but it already works in reality.

Demolition Man

The amputation of body parts (from one person) to identify and get access to top-secret things by another person or to collect information is the next iteration of biometrics that is frequently exploited in movies. The film "Demolition Man" is one example of an eye being removed and used.

In reality, this doesn't work. Because the majority of today's technologies are created with a "live" identification mechanism (pulse, reflexes, temperature, humidity coefficient, etc.), it is not possible to identify a dead portion of the body using these methods. Those who use fingerprint readers in their day-to-day lives can attest to the fact that the performance of the gadget is significantly diminished during the winter months because the fingers freeze.

In addition to the built-in mechanism that was just described, there is also a biological limitation: a severed finger is considered "invalid" after approximately ten minutes; an amputated eyeball decomposes rather quickly, and the pupil spreads out, making it unsuitable for use as a unique identifier; the eyeball also decomposes rather quickly.

Minority Report

Developing the topic of biometric authentication with the help of the eyes, it is worth noting that an eye transplant procedure is a common approach in filmmaking for changing identity and gaining access to something. The film "Minority Report" is one such example.

Eye surgeons are unlikely to transplant an entire eyeball, owing to the inutility of such a procedure. For the eye to operate, the optic nerve must also work, which cannot be "stitched on" (much as a brain transplant cannot be performed), at least not yet. An eyeball transplant procedure is theoretically conceivable, but this eye will be unable to see, which is why nothing like this is done. We can only guess whether such an eye may be utilized for biometric identification.

Back to the Future 2

One of the most prophetic and reliable films in the field of biometric technology was "Back to the Future 2"

The video depicts the active usage of biometric technology multiple times. To begin, this is the identification of a person using fingerprints (instead of, say, a passport). Remember how the cops fingerprinted Jennifer Parker, who was sedated by Doc prior to "arriving" in 2015? Secondly, the officers used the same fingerprint to enter Jennifer's Hill Dale home. Thirdly, payment for products and services was using biometrics rather than credit cards: elderly Biff pays for a cab by merely putting his finger on a biometric sensor.

Conclusion

In each of these three counts, the authors have made excellent points. You are required to leave your biometric data in order to receive a visa to enter the United States, the European Union, and some other countries. These biometric data might be in the form of fingerprints or retinal scans. Of course, not all US residents have had their fingerprints taken yet.

In addition, payments made using a customer's fingerprint have already started to become more commonplace in the banking industry. The widespread Apple Pay service is a good illustration of this point. To validate the transaction, all that is required of you is to scan your fingerprint by pressing a single button that is located on the front of your smartphone. In newer models, you simply have to scan your face.

Last but not least, a number of firms have already introduced door locks that can be opened using a fingerprint. One of Samsung's many business divisions focuses on "Smart Home" goods, one of which is the production of electronic door locks.

Science fiction from films is clearly becoming a reality; certainly, the imagination and ingenuity displayed by writers and filmmakers may be what pushes scientists to research and bring that vision into reality.

Biometric technology has a bright future. This confirms that the most tempestuous and impossible visions of filmmakers in the early 2000s or the 1980s are not the future; rather, they are becoming normal in everyday life.

Biometrics in Hollywood movies: fantasy or reality?

Dec 8, 2022 — 4 min read

The most frequently-used password globally is "123456”. However, analyzing passwords by country can yield some quite fascinating results.

We frequently choose weak passwords such as "123456" since they are easy to remember and input. The differences between such passwords can sometimes be found in the language itself. For example, if the English have "password" at the top of their list, the Germans prefer "passwort", and the French use "azerty" instead of "qwerty" due to the peculiarities of the French keyboard layout, which has the letter A instead of the usual Q.

When a weak password is driven by culture, things get much more intriguing. The password "Juventus" is likely to appeal to fans of the Italian football team Juventus. This password is also the fourth most popular option among Italian Internet users. The club is from Turin, Piedmont, and is supported by about 9 million people. At first look, the unique password "Anathema" appears to be a typical occurrence in Turkey, where the British band Anathema's name is among the top ten most common passwords.

A weak password is widespread

ExpressVPN together with Pollfish interviewed 1,000 customers about their password preferences in order to learn more about how individuals approach password formation.

Here are some of their findings:

•  The typical internet-goer uses the same password for six different websites and/or platforms

•  Relatives are likely to be able to guess their passwords from internet accounts, according to 43% of respondents

•  When generating passwords, two out of every five people utilize different variants of their first and/or last name

These findings demonstrate a lack of cybersecurity knowledge, despite the fact that 81% of respondents feel confident in the security and privacy of their existing passwords.

According to the survey results, passwords frequently contain personal information. Below, you will find the most shared personal information with the percentage of respondents who revealed that their passwords contained personal information.

•  First Name (42.3%)

•  Surname (40%)

•  Middle Name (31.6%)

•  Date of birth (43.9%)

•  Social security number (30.3%)

•  Phone number (32.2%)

•  Pet name (43.8%)

•  Child's name (37.5%)

•  Ex-partner's name (26.1%)

The most common passwords in various countries

Based on an infographic from ExpressVPN, the picture below illustrates the most often used passwords in various nations, practically all of which are in the top ten in their respective countries. Many are exclusive to these nations and demonstrate how cultural influences impact password creation.

Much of the information presented comes from a third-party study of stolen credentials (which were made public by Github user Ata Hakç). These datasets are based on the language of the individual sites, allowing the information to be distributed by country.

Let's have a look at some interesting variations of passwords. For instance, the phrase "I love you forever" may be deciphered from the password "5201314," which is commonly used by people from Hong Kong. In contrast, users in Croatia make use of the password “Dinamo”, which is derived from the name of an illustrious football team based in Zagreb. Martin is the password that is used by people from Slovakia. In Slovakia, the name Martin has a position as the fourth most common name. The Greeks, on the other hand, chose not to put undue effort into themselves and instead went with the most straightforward password out of the list, which was 212121. On the other hand, Ukrainians use the pretty difficult password Pov1mLy727. Apart from Ukraine, there are other countries where users more often than not create strong passwords. Let’s take a look.

These 10 countries create the strongest passwords

According to the results of the National Privacy Test that was carried out by NordVPN, the greatest marks were obtained by Italians in regard to their understanding of robust passwords. The following is a list of the top ten nations in which people come up with the most complicated passwords.

1. Italy 94.3 (points out of 100)

2. Switzerland 94

3. Spain 93.5

4. Germany 93.3

5. France 92.3

6. Denmark 91.8

7. UK 90.7

8. Belgium 90.4

9. Canada 89.4

10. USA 89.3

The top 10 did not include Australia (88.9), South Africa (86.2), Saudi Arabia (85.7), Russia (81.4), Brazil (81.2), Turkey (73.9), and India (78.4).

"This study demonstrates that individuals from all around the world are aware of how to generate secure passwords. The information is there, but people aren't using it in the right ways," says Chad Hammond, a security specialist at NordPass.

Also in November 2022, NordPass published a study that found out which passwords network users use most often. According to the findings of the survey, the majority of individuals still rely on simple passwords such as their own names, the names of their favorite sports teams or foods, simple numerical combinations, and other straightforward options.

NordPass security specialist Chad Hammond also stated, "Using unique passwords is really crucial, and it's scary that so many individuals still don't." It is critical to generate distinct passwords for each account. "We put all accounts with the same password in danger when we reuse passwords: in the case of a data breach, one account at risk can compromise the others."To summarize, it is reasonable to state that it does not matter where you were born, where you live, or what you are passionate about; you must always use unique passwords. We recommend that you make your password difficult to guess by making it more complicated or by using a password generator. This will increase the level of security provided by your password. In addition to this, we strongly suggest that you take advantage of two-factor authentication wherever it is an option. If you add an additional layer of protection to your accounts, be it in the form of an app, biometrics, or a physical security key, you will notice a significant increase in their level of security.

How passwords differ around the world

Dec 6, 2022 — 4 min read

The truth is, the answer isn’t as straightforward as you might think. A ‘hacker’ is a name that can be ascribed to many different types of individuals — from North Korean crypto bridge drainers to a jealous 16-year-old trying to get into his girlfriend’s Facebook account. That’s why it’s important to understand exactly what a ‘real’ hacker is and what kinds of assaults may be carried out.

As a result of the controversy that surrounds the concept of hacking, hackers frequently get labeled as criminals. The process of obtaining and providing information or data is known as "hacking," and while there are numerous and less severe forms of hacking, "security hacking" is the most common type of hacking. Hacking is, in fact, an interesting component of computer operations that involves obtaining and presenting certain information or data.

The definition "individuals who utilize their knowledge or competence in computer operations to obtain access to systems or defeat Internet security barriers" describes the sort of hacking that falls under this category. "Gaining access" is the fundamental aspect of hacking. Some hackers do it for the thrill of it, while others do it for financial benefit. Some are even driven by political motivations.

Types of security hackers

Black Hat

The average hacker in the headlines and the greatest threat to your company is motivated by monetary gain. Their purpose is to enter your company and steal bank information, private data, and money. The stolen resources are utilized for extortion, illicit market sales, or personal benefit.

White Hat

These hackers are the antithesis of "black hat hackers," since they want to assist companies and support them in their cyber protection efforts either pro bono or in exchange for payment. A firm or an individual that assists with the protection of your organization — in other words. Cyberkite is analogous to a hacker who wears a white hat; they defend the data of your company.

Gray Hat

Personal pleasure drives these hackers. They are aware of everything that white and black hackers are aware of, and they are uninterested in attacking or safeguarding you. Usually, they merely have a good time breaking down fortifications for a test. They seldom do anything damaging, so they cut and go on. They constitute the vast majority of all hackers.

Blue Hat

This hacker is spiteful and hostile. They don't exist unless you make them. As a result, it is worthwhile to follow business ethics and treat consumers and other parties fairly. Because who knows, if you're not playing fair, you enrage them, and one of them turns into a hacker with a blue hat. They frequently modify off-the-shelf attack programs to suit their needs. They then utilize this code to exact vengeance on a company or individual.

Red Hat

Crusaders in cyberspace. They are vigilante superheroes who also serve as judges, juries, and executioners. Their mission is to eradicate black hat hackers from the internet. They employ a slew of black-hat cyberweapons against them. However, you are unaware of their existence since they resemble well-known comic book superheroes. The upside to your business is that they, like white hat hackers, try to defend you.

Green Hat

Inexperienced hackers. They are yet to become full-fledged hackers. They put programming to the test in order to learn. They normally do not assault businesses and instead learn from experienced hackers in internet groups. They don’t usually pose a hazard to your business.

Script Kiddie  

These guys are not like the rest. Of course, they sound like harmless hackers, but their purpose is to cause as much devastation and destruction as possible. They have no desire to steal. They concentrate on scripting and coding but do not create their own software. DoS (denial of service) or DDoS (distributed denial of service) attacks are widespread on their side. As a result, they’ll utilize any sort of assault that might create havoc within your firm, harm your reputation, or result in client loss.

The country with the highest number of hackers

With definitions out of the way, you can be sure of the kinds of hackers we’re talking about. Indeed, China is home to the world's highest number of hackers per capita. It is possible to fall into the trap of believing that everything is predicated just on the size of China's population, which is enormous. However, not everything is as it seems at first glance. The hacker networks or organizations that China employs are among the most advanced and sophisticated in the world. The People's Liberation Army of China (PLAC) backs some of these groups financially and logistically.

Also, in order to achieve domination over other nations in cyberspace, China is encouraging cybersecurity as a culture. This will ensure that its educated youth have an excellent level of cyber literacy. This has also resulted in a rise in the amount of cybercrime. Various estimates suggest that China is responsible for 41% of all cyber assaults that occur throughout the world.

The idea of "network warfare" in Chinese information operations and information warfare is approximately equivalent to the American concept of cyber warfare. According to Foreign Policy magazine, China's "hacker army" numbers between 50,000 and 100,000 members, in addition to other groups and individuals. Chinese hackers might be described as "patient dreamers and social engineers." Asia, the Pacific, and Australia are their favorite locations.

Chinese hackers' typical attacks

A common Chinese hack employs a viral SMS message including a link to gather or install keystroke monitoring software in search of bank account access. It is worth noting that the majority of China's cybercrime infrastructure is based outside the nation, owing to strict government rules. Another factor to consider is that, over the last 20 years, China has swiftly absorbed and overtaken Western nations in the latest technology — for example, the city of Shenzhen is regarded as the world's electronics capital. Furthermore, China's objective cannot be dismissed as a desire to acquire the intellectual property for use in both the business and public sectors. The other is the urge to spy on one's own citizens and those of other nations — yeah, that's right, the surveillance program includes, for example, eavesdropping on Americans online, according to an April 2021 Human Rights Watch report. Will the government take a more active role in combating and preventing cybercrime? Only time will tell.

What country has the most hackers per capita?

Nov 30, 2022 — 4 min read

In contrast to other forms of verification, such as passwords or tokens, biometric authentication relies on an individual's distinct biological traits to confirm their identity. Indeed, it’s harder to fake and is typically more user-friendly since users do not have to memorize passwords or carry about a physical token that may easily be lost or stolen. Additionally, it is more difficult to counterfeit. An essential component of identification is the authenticator.

Analysis of a person's speech may be used for identity verification using a process known as voice recognition, which is sometimes referred to as speech recognition or voice authentication. Airways and soft tissue cavities, in addition to the shape of the mouth and the movement of the jaw, all have an effect on speech patterns and help create a person's distinctive "vocal print."

There’s a kind of speech recognition technology available known as speaker recognition. It’s not the same as voice recognition, which is a technique that is utilized in applications that convert speech to text and in virtual assistants such as Siri and Alexa. Although speech recognition can comprehend spoken words, it cannot verify a speaker's identity based on the speaker's vocal characteristics; however, voice biometrics can.

Methods for recognizing the speaker

There are primarily two methods that may be used for voice authentication:

  • Text independent
    Any spoken passphrase or other types of speech material may be used to achieve voice authentication
  • Text-dependent
    In both the registration process and the verification process, you will use identical passphrases. This implies that the speaker will be asked to repeat a sentence that has already been decided upon, rather than being allowed to say anything that they would want to affirm. When using static text voice authentication, the password that is used for one verification is utilized for all of the verifications. The user is provided with a passphrase that is completely random, such as a series of numbers, through dynamic text-based voice authentication. Additionally, registration is required for this content.

Registration and confirmation of identity

It is necessary to capture the biometric speech sample and then register it with the microphone in order to generate a reference template that can be used for comparison with samples during subsequent authentication attempts. After that, distinctive aspects of the vocal performance are observed, such as:

  • Duration
  • Intensity
  • Dynamics
  • Innings

Examples of voice authentication

The hands-free mobile authentication use case is the most common use for voice authentication. This kind of identification is perfect for use on mobile phones or in other situations where other types of biometric verification, such as face recognition, fingerprint recognition, or iris recognition, are impractical. in automobiles.

Voice authentication may also be beneficial for voice recognition devices like Amazon Alexa and Google Home. There has been a recent uptick in the usage of virtual assistants to carry out activities such as placing orders and doing other tasks that would traditionally demand some kind of verification.

During help desk conversations, speaker recognition may also serve as an authenticator for callers. When compared to supplying personal information to verify identification, such as a driver's license or credit card number, users may discover that this method is not only more secure but also more convenient.

Advantages of voice recognition

Low operational costs

Voice authentication may result in cost savings for call centers as well as financial institutions. They are able to save millions of dollars because of the fact that this technology does away with many of the stages required by conventional verification procedures. During an end-to-end conversation, it is able to validate the customer's identification just by recognizing their voice, eliminating the need for the routine questions that are often asked.

Improved quality of life for the end customer

Voice biometric systems provide a number of benefits, one of which is that they have the potential to significantly enhance the customer experience. However, this potential is sometimes overlooked. It is no longer necessary for callers to provide passcodes, PINs, or answers to challenge questions in order to have their identities verified.

Because of this, speech biometrics are ideal for omnichannel and multichannel deployments. Once a client has been registered, their voiceprint may be utilized across all of a company's support channels, making speech biometrics suitable for omnichannel and multichannel deployments.

Increased accuracy

Voice authentication is more reliable and accurate than using passwords, which are simple to forget, change, or guess. Passwords are also easier to compromise. It's kind of like how fingerprints are the only thing that can identify you. To put it another way, in contrast to passwords, a voice is impossible to forget or imitate. In spite of the fact that the sound might be influenced by a number of factors, it is much more dependable and handy.

Technology that is simple to put into action

The ease of use and implementation that speech recognition biometrics provide is very valuable to a lot of different companies. It may be difficult to implement some forms of biometric technology inside an organization and to get started with these systems. However, due to the fact that speech biometric systems need so little, it is often possible to install them without the need for extra hardware or software.

Because this technology is so easy to use, businesses often have the ability to redeploy employees to other areas of the organization in order to improve both their efficiency and the level of pleasure they provide to their customers.

Conclusion

Voice authentication is an excellent method for verifying a user's identity since it offers extra levels of security, which manual passcodes may not be able to give. Voice authentication is a wonderful approach to verifying a user's identity. Voice authentication is advantageous for both the company and its consumers since it eliminates the annoyance that is associated with laborious login procedures.

The technologies behind voice recognition

Nov 24, 2022 — 4 min read

There is no good reason, from a technical standpoint, why passwords can't contain scripts in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, or any other language for that matter. If you are able to write in this script, then it is entirely appropriate for you to employ it in whatever endeavors you undertake.

However, if you put this theory to the test, you will discover that many websites, including well-known ones like Google, prevent you from entering a password that contains characters other than A-Z, 0-9, and common special characters.

This brings to mind the early days of the internet when certain websites forbade the use of capitalization and prohibited the use of Latin letters for no discernible reason.

Site issues with passwords including Chinese characters

Users often make use of passwords that are longer than 30 characters, include all of the various character kinds that are usually suggested, and are created at random. If you use a password manager, you should probably make the password as difficult and as lengthy as it can possibly be.

However, if you visit more than 150 websites and change your password each time, you may find that many websites have password rules that do nothing but lower their level of security rather than increase it. This is because these rules are designed to protect users from themselves.

For instance, several websites impose arbitrary restrictions on the maximum length of passwords. They will typically demand passwords with less than 20 characters, in many instances. In certain cases, you can only use a maximum of 12 characters.

Even though it makes the password less secure, certain websites require that you include a number and a special character. This is despite the fact that doing so decreases the entropy of the password. On other pages, one may be restricted to using just the Latin letters; numerals and punctuation are not allowed. On certain websites, one may use punctuation, but you have to choose it from a drop-down menu first, and characters like "&" are not permitted.

This last point ought to give you significant cause for worry. Are these websites capable of sanitizing the password before inserting it into the database? Your database should not be used to store passwords in any way. I'm curious how many times this has been the cause when we consider severe breaches of privacy. You are required to hash the password before saving it.

In any event, the end effect of all of this is that a significant number of websites still verify passwords in an erroneous manner, excluding characters that really should be fully allowed. There is no valid reason why "您未设置安保问题" can’t serve as your password.

So, how safe is such a password?

Entropy is a term used to describe both the difficulty of breaking a password and the complexity of the password itself. In the next paragraphs, we will examine how to compute the entropy of a password.

If we expand the character set to cover everything from a to Z, digits from 0 to 9, punctuation marks, and so on, then we have a pool of 90 characters. This results in an entropy per character of log2(90), which is equivalent to 6.49 bits. If, on the other hand, we expand our character pool to include all Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK) characters (presuming that our character pool has 74,605 characters), then we can calculate the entropy of each character as log2 (74605) = 16.19 bits of entropy per character.

Therefore, a 7-character CJK password such as "正确的马电池钉" would give you 16.19 bits of entropy times 7, which equals 113.33 bits total. I would need a password consisting of 18 characters if I wanted to match this using Latin letters, numbers, and special characters.

The vast majority of people are Chinese-illiterate. They have decided against using any characters that include CJK in their passwords. On the other hand, the effectiveness of a complicated password is comparable to that of vaccination in that it confers herd immunity. Crackers will only conduct brute force or dictionary attacks based on the letter az if individuals only use passwords that include those letters. If people have a habit of using numbers and punctuation, it forces attackers to incorporate those elements into their vocabulary, which in turn slows down their attack. The attacker needs to try all of these additional possible combinations, regardless of whether or not your own password used any of them.

Because roughly one-third of the world's population is able to read and write CJK characters (the populations of China and Japan are enormous), if we permit people to use CJK characters in their passwords, then even if I don't use CJK characters myself, we can all benefit from the increased complexity that this provides.

To reiterate, knowledge of Chinese is not required in order to work with CJK characters. You can keep track of all of your passwords by using a password manager, as was previously suggested. It does not matter whether you are unable to read or write the password as long as the password manager is able to save it and accurately copy and paste it into the password box when it is required.

Conclusion

We’d like to remind everyone that your name, birth date, or any other identifying information should never be used as a password, regardless of the language you use.

In addition, the passwords that are established on other websites might somewhat vary from one another, which makes them easier to remember and prevents the same issue from occurring. In this scenario, it is essential to connect your mobile phone number or email address so that you may easily recover the account in the event that the mobile phone number is lost or stolen.

On the other hand, many people feel that passwords are becoming outdated and that there are now more efficient methods to handle computer security and authentication than by using passwords. Perhaps now is the moment for people to begin shifting their attention to other approaches. In the not-too-distant future, we will find out.

How secure is a password that uses Chinese characters?

Nov 10, 2022 — 5 min read

Multi-factor authentication (often known as MFA for short), refers to the process of confirming the identity of a user who is attempting to log in to a website, application, or another type of resource using more than one piece of information. Indeed, multi-factor authentication is the difference between entering a password to gain access to a resource and entering a password plus a one-time password (OTP), or a password plus the answer to a security question. Another example of multi-factor authentication is entering a password plus the answer to a security question.

Multi-factor authentication provides greater assurance that individuals are who they claim to be by requiring them to confirm their identity in more than one way. This, in turn, reduces the risk of unauthorised access to sensitive data. Multi-factor authentication requires individuals to confirm their identity in more than one way. After all, entering a stolen password to get access is one thing; it is quite another to enter a stolen password and then be needed to additionally input an OTP that was sent to the smartphone of the real user.

Multi-factor authentication can be achieved through the use of any combination of two or more factors. Two-factor authentication is another name for the practice of using only two factors to verify a user's identity.

How Does MFA work?

MFA is effective because it necessitates the collection of extra verification information (factors). One-time passwords are one of the multi-factor authentication mechanisms that consumers encounter most frequently (OTP). OTPs are the four-digit to eight-digit codes that you frequently receive through email, SMS, or a mobile application of some kind. When using OTPs, a fresh code will be created at predetermined intervals or whenever an authentication request is sent in. The code is created based on a seed value that is assigned to the user when they first register and some other component, which might simply be a counter that is incremented or a time value. This seed value is used in conjunction with some other factor to generate the code.

The three categories of multi-factor authentication methods

Generally speaking, a technique of multi-factor authentication will fall into one of these three categories:

•  Something you are familiar with: a PIN, password, or the solution to a security question

•  Something you own: an OTP, a token, a trusted device, a smart card, or a badge

•  Something you are, such as your face, fingerprint, retinal scan, or other biometric information

Methods of multi-factor authentication

In order to accomplish multi-factor authentication, you will need to utilise at least one of the following methods in addition to a password.

Biometrics

A method of verification that depends on a piece of hardware or software being able to recognize biometric data, such as a person's fingerprint, facial characteristics, or the retina or iris of their eye.

Push to approve

A notice is shown on someone's smartphone that prompts the user to tap their screen in order to accept or deny a request for access to their device.

One-time password (OTP)

A collection of characters that are created automatically and are used to authenticate a user for a single login session or transaction only.

An SMS

A method for sending a One-Time Password (OTP) to the user's smartphone or other devices.

Hardware token

A compact, portable OTP-generating device that is sometimes referred to as a key fob.

Software token

A token that does not exist in the form of a physical token but rather as a software program that can be downloaded onto a smartphone or other device.

The advantages of multi-factor authentication

Enhancing the level of safety

Authentication that takes into account many factors is more secure. After all, when there is only one mechanism defending a point of access, such as a password, all a malicious actor needs to do to get admission is figure out a means to guess or steal that password. This is the only thing that needs to be done in order to acquire access. However, if admittance additionally needs a second (or perhaps a second and a third) element of authentication, then it becomes far more difficult to obtain access, particularly if the requirement is for something that is more difficult to guess or steal, such as a biometric characteristic.

Providing support for various digital initiatives

Multi-factor authentication is a key enabler in today's business world, where more companies are keen to deploy remote workforces, more customers want to purchase online rather than in shops, and more companies are migrating apps and other resources to the cloud. In this day and age, it can be difficult to ensure the safety of organisational and e-commerce resources. Multi-factor authentication can be an extremely useful tool for assisting in the protection of online interactions and financial transactions.

Are there any disadvantages to multi-factor authentication?

It is feasible to establish a less easy-to-access environment while building a more secure one — and this might be a disadvantage (this is especially true as zero trust, which sees everything as a possible threat, including the network and any apps or services running on it, gains acceptance as a safe access basis). No employee wants to spend additional time each day dealing with several impediments to getting on and accessing resources, and no consumer wants to be slowed down by multiple authentication procedures. The objective is to strike a balance between security and convenience so that access is secure but not so onerous that it causes excessive hardship for those who legitimately require it.

The role of risk-based authentication in multi-factor authentication

One technique to achieve a balance between security and convenience is to increase or decrease authentication requirements based on the risk associated with an access request. This is what risk-based authentication entails. The risk might be associated with either what is being accessed or who is requesting access.

The risk presented by what is accessed

For example, if someone seeks digital access to a bank account, is it to initiate a money transfer or simply to verify the status of an existing transfer? Or, if someone interacts with an online shopping website or app, is it to place an order or to monitor the progress of an existing purchase? For the latter, a username and password may be sufficient, but multi-factor authentication makes sense when a high-value item is at stake.

The risk is presented by the person requesting access

When a remote employee or contractor seeks access to the corporate network from the same city, on the same laptop, day after day, there's little reason to assume it's not that person. But what happens when a request from Mary in Minneapolis arrives from Moscow unexpectedly one morning? A request for extra authentication is warranted due to the possible danger – is it really her?

The future of Multi-Factor Authentication: AI, Machine Learning and more

Multi-factor authentication is always improving to provide enterprises with access that is both more secure and less unpleasant for individuals. Biometrics is an excellent example of this concept. It's more secure, since stealing a fingerprint or a face is difficult, and it's more convenient because the user doesn't have to remember anything (such as a password) or make any other substantial effort. The following are some of the current advancements in multi-factor authentication.

Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI)

AI and ML may be used to identify characteristics that indicate if a particular access request is "normal" and as such, does not require extra authentication (or, conversely, to recognize anomalous behaviour that does warrant it).

Online Quick Identity (FIDO)

The FIDO Alliance's free and open standards serve as the foundation for FIDO authentication. It facilitates the replacement of password logins with safe and quick login experiences across websites and applications.

Authentication without a password

Rather than utilising a password as the primary means of identity verification and complementing it with alternative non-password methods, passwordless authentication does away with passwords entirely.

Be certain that multi-factor authentication will continue to evolve and develop in the pursuit of methods for individuals to show they are who they say they are — reliably and without having to jump through an endless number of hoops.

What exactly is multi-factor authentication (MFA) and how does it work?

Nov 10, 2022 — 4 min read

It's possible that you've become familiar with the term "time-based one-time passwords" (TOTP) in relation to "two-factor authentication" (FA) or "multi-factor authentication" (MFA).

However, do you really understand TOTP and how they work?

The Meaning of TOTP

"Time-Based One-Time Passwords” refer to passwords that are only valid for 30-90 seconds after they have been formed with a shared secret value and the current time on the system.

Passwords are almost always composed of six-digit sequences that are changed every thirty seconds. On the other hand, some implementations of TOTP make use of four-digit codes that become invalid after a period of 90 seconds.

An open standard is used in the TOTP algorithm, and this standard is detailed in RFC 6238.

What is a shared secret?

TOTP authentication uses a shared secret in the form of a secret key that is shared between the client and the server.

To the naked eye, the Shared Secret seems to be a string with a representation in Base32 that is similar to the following:

KRUGS4ZANFZSAYJAONUGC4TFMQQHGZLDOJSXIIDFPBQW24DMMU======

Computers are able to comprehend and make sense of information even if it is not legible by humans in the manner in which it is presented.

The client and the server both have a copy of the shared secret safely stored on their respective systems after a single transmission of the secret.

If an adversary is able to discover the value of the shared secret, then they will be able to construct their own unique one-time passcodes that are legitimate. Because of this, every implementation of TOTP needs to pay particular attention to securely storing the shared secret in a safe manner.

What is system time?

There is a clock that is integrated into every computer and mobile phone that measures what is referred to as Unix time.

Unix time is measured in terms of the number of seconds that have passed since January 1, 1970, at 00:00:00 UTC.

Unix time appears to be nothing more than a string of numbers:

1643788666

This small number, however, is excellent for the generation of an OTP since the majority of electrical devices using Unix time clocks are sufficiently synced with one another.

Implementations of the TOTP Authentication Protocol

The use of passwords is not recommended. However, you may increase security by combining a traditional password with a time-sensitive one-time password (TOTP). This combination is known as two-factor authentication or 2FA, and it may be used to authenticate your accounts, virtual private networks (VPNs), and apps securely.

TOTP can be implemented in hardware and software tokens:

•  The TOTP hardware token is a physical keychain that displays the current code on a small screen

•  The TOTP soft token is a mobile application that displays a code on a phone’s screen

It makes no difference whether you use software tokens or hardware tokens. The purpose of using two different forms of authentication is to increase the level of protection afforded to your online accounts. You have access to a one-time password generator that you may use during two-factor authentication to obtain access to your account. This generator is available to you regardless of whether you have a key fob or a smartphone with an authentication app.

How does a time-based one-time password work?

The value of the shared secret is included in the generation of each time-based one-time password (TOTP), which is dependent on the current time.

To produce a one-time password, the TOTP method takes into account both the current Unix time and the shared secret value.

The counter in the HMAC-based one-time password (HOTP) method is swapped out for the value of the current time in the time-based one-time password algorithm, which is a version of the HOTP algorithm.

The one-time password (TOTP) technique is based on a hash function that, given an input of indeterminate length, generates a short character string of fixed length. This explanation avoids getting too bogged down in technical language. If you simply have the result of a hash function, you will not be able to recreate the original parameters that were used to generate it. This is one of the hash function's strengths.

It is essential to keep in mind that TOTP offers a higher level of security than HOTP. Every 30 seconds, a brand new password is produced while using TOTP. When using HOTP, a new password is not created until after the previous one has been entered and used. The fact that the one-time password for HOTP continues to work even after it has been used for authentication leaves hackers with a significant window of opportunity to mount a successful assault.

Authentication using Multiple Factors (MFA)

A user must first register their TOTP token in any multi-factor authentication (MFA) system that supports a time-based one-time password before they can use the device to connect to their account.

Some TOTP soft tokens need the registration of a different OTP generator for each account. This effectively implies that if you add two accounts to your authenticator app, the program will produce two temporary passwords, one for each account, every 30 seconds. A single TOTP soft token (authenticator program) may support an infinite number of one-time password generators. Individual one-time password generators safeguard the security of all other accounts in the case where the security of an account is compromised.

To use 2FA, a secret must be created and shared between the TOTP token and the security system. The security system's secret must then be passed to the token.

How is the shared secret sent to the token?

Typically, the security system creates a QR code and requests that the user scan it using an authenticator app.

A QR code of this type is a visual depiction of a lengthy string of letters. The shared secret is, roughly speaking, part of this lengthy sequence.

The software will string the image and extract the secret when the user scans the QR code using the authenticator app. The authenticator program may now utilize the shared secret to generate one-time passwords.

When registering a TOTP token, the secret is only sent once. Many of the concerns about stealing the private key are alleviated. An adversary can still steal the secret, but they must first physically steal the token.

It works even when you're not connected to the internet!

To use the TOTP technique, you do not need an active internet connection on your smartphone or a physical key.

The TOTP token only needs to obtain the shared secret value once. The security system and the OTP generator may thus produce successive password values without needing to communicate. As a consequence, time-based one-time passwords (TOTP) operate even when the computer is turned off.

All about Time-Based One-Time Passwords (TOTP)

Oct 27, 2022 — 5 min read

Facial recognition is a technology-based method of identifying a human face. Such a recognition system maps facial characteristics from an image or video using biometrics. To identify a match, it compares the information gained to a database of known faces. Facial recognition may aid in the verification of a person's identification, but it also presents privacy concerns.

The facial recognition industry is predicted to expand from $4 billion in 2017 to $7.7 billion in 2022. This is due to the fact that such technology holds several business uses including monitoring and marketing.

But here's where things become difficult. If you value your privacy, you undoubtedly want some say over how your personal information (your data) is utilised. The truth is, your "faceprint" is your personal information.

How does facial recognition work?

You might be adept at identifying people's faces. You probably have no trouble recognizing the face of a family member, friend, or acquaintance. You recognize their facial characteristics — their eyes, nose, and mouth and their facial movements.

That is exactly how a face recognition system operates but on a much larger, computational scale. Recognition technology sees data where you see a face. That information may be saved and retrieved. According to Georgetown University research, half of all American adults have their photos recorded in one or more facial-recognition databases that law enforcement authorities may consult should they wish to.

So, how does facial recognition really work? Although certain technologies differ, most follow a standard procedure:

•  A photograph or video of your face is obtained. Your face might be scanned alone or in a crowd. Your photo might show you gazing straight ahead or almost in a profile view.

•  The geometry of your face is scanned by facial recognition software. The distance between your eyes and the distance from your forehead to your chin are important considerations. The program recognizes facial landmarks — one system even recognizes 68 of them – which are all important in differentiating your face. As a consequence, your facial signature is created.

•  A database of known faces is matched to your facial signature, which is a mathematical formula. Consider the following: At least 117 million people in the United States have photos of their faces in one or more police databases. The FBI has access to 412 million of such pictures for searches, according to a May 2018 report.

•  A decision is made. Your faceprint could match one in a database bringing back a positive result.

How effective is facial recognition?

Experts are concerned that face recognition might result in incorrect identifications. What if a police agency wrongly identifies someone smashing a shop window during a riot as someone who was nowhere near the incident using facial recognition technology? How probable is it that such an incident will occur?

It depends. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology tests, the top face recognition algorithm has an error rate of under 0.08% as of April 2020. This is a significant improvement from 2014 when the best algorithm on the market had an error rate of 4.1%.

According to a 2020 report by the Centre for Strategic & International Studies (CSI), accuracy is greater when identification algorithms are used to match persons to clear, static photos, such as passport photos and mugshots. When applied in this manner, face recognition algorithms achieved up to 99.97% accuracy on the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Facial Recognition Vendor Test.

In practice, however, accuracy rates are often lower. According to the CSI report, the Facial Recognition Vendor Test discovered that the mistake rate for one algorithm increased from 0.1% when faces were matched to high-quality mugshots to 9.3% when faces were matched against images of people caught in public. When individuals were not looking straight at the camera or were partly concealed by shadows or objects, error rates increased.

Another issue is ageing. According to the Facial Recognition Vendor Test, middle-tier facial recognition algorithms exhibited mistake rates that increased by roughly a factor of ten when attempting to match photographs of participants shot 18 years earlier.

Who employs facial recognition?

Many individuals and organisations utilise face recognition in a variety of settings. Here are a few examples:

Airport administration

In airports, facial recognition technologies can monitor persons entering and exiting. The technology has been utilised by the Department of Homeland Security to identify persons who have overstayed their visas or are under criminal investigation.

Product manufacturers of mobile phones

Apple originally employed facial recognition to unlock the iPhone X, and since, the technology has been carried over to all subsequent models. Face ID authenticates — it ensures that you are who you say you are when you access your phone. According to Apple, the likelihood of a random face unlocking your phone is one in one million.

Websites for social networking businesses

When you post a picture to Facebook, an algorithm is used to detect faces. If you wish to tag others in your images, the social media firm will ask you. If you answer yes, a connection to their profiles is created. Facial recognition on Facebook is 98 percent accurate.

Entrance businesses and restricted zones

Some businesses have abandoned security badges in favour of facial recognition technologies.

Religious congregations at places of worship

Face recognition has been used by churches to scan their congregations to see who is there. It's a fantastic method to keep track of regulars and irregulars, as well as to adapt contribution requests.

Campaign marketers and advertisers

When targeting groups for a product or concept, marketers often consider factors such as gender, age, and ethnicity. Even during a performance, facial recognition may be used to determine such audiences.

The use of facial recognition in police enforcement

Today, facial recognition databases play an important role in law enforcement. According to an Electronic Frontier Foundation investigation, law enforcement agencies frequently collect mugshots from jailed people and compare them to local, state, and federal face recognition databases.

Law enforcement organisations may use these mugshot databases to identify persons in images collected from a number of sources, including closed-circuit television cameras, traffic cameras, social media, and photos taken by police officers themselves.

According to the Electronic Frontier Foundation, police officers may also use their mobile phones, tablets, or other devices to take images of cars or pedestrians and instantaneously match their photos to the faces in one or more facial recognition databases.

In addition, police enforcement has utilised face recognition to identify persons who may be sought in connection with crimes at huge events such as concerts, sports events, or the Olympics.

Several face recognition technologies are available to the federal authorities. Its primary database, however, is the FBI's Next Generation Identification system. This collection comprises over 30 million images.

Conclusion

Opponents of face recognition systems argue that although they give some protection, it is not enough to outweigh a feeling of independence and freedom. Many people believe that the usage of these technologies violates their privacy, but their worries don't stop there. They also emphasise the dangers of identity theft. Even face recognition companies recognize that as the technology becomes more widely used, the probability of identity theft or fraud increases.

As with many emerging technologies, the enormous promise of facial recognition has its downsides, but manufacturers are working to improve the usability and accuracy of their systems every day.

All about facial recognition