What is End-to-end encryption?

End-to-end encryption has been introduced by many communication providers in recent years, notably WhatsApp and Zoom. Although those companies have tried to explain the concept to their user base several times, we believe they failed. Whilst it's clear that these platforms have increased security, most don’t know how or why. Well, encryption is a rather simple concept to understand: It converts data into an unreadable format. But what exactly does "end-to-end" imply? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this added layer of security? We'll explain this as simply as possible without diving too much into the underlying math and technical terminology.

What is end-to-end encryption?

End-to-end encryption (E2EE) is a state-of-the-art protocol for communication security. Only the sender and the intended recipient(s) have access to the data in an end-to-end encrypted system. The encrypted data on the server is inaccessible to both hackers and undesirable third parties.

End-to-end encryption is best understood when compared to the encryption-in-transit approach, so let’s perform a quick recap. If a service employs encryption-in-transit, it is usually encrypted on your device before being delivered to the server. It’s then decrypted for processing on the server before it’s re-encrypted and routed to its final destination. When the data is in transit, it’s encrypted, but when it’s ‘at rest’, it’s decrypted. This safeguards the data during the most dangerous stage of the journey, transit — when it’s most exposed to hackers, interception, and theft.

End-to-end encryption, on the other hand, is the process of encrypting data on your device and not decrypting it until it reaches its destination. When your message travels through the server, not even the service that is delivering the data can view the content of your message.

In practice, this means that messengers using 'real' end-to-end encryption, like Signal, know only your phone number and the date of your last login – nothing more.

This is important for users that want to be sure their communication is kept secure from prying eyes. There are also some real-life examples that utilize end-to-end encryption for financial transactions and commercial communication.

How does it work?

The generation of a public-private key pair ensures the security of end-to-end encryption. This method, also known as asymmetric cryptography, encrypts and decrypts the message using distinct cryptographic keys. Public keys are widely distributed and are used to encrypt or ‘lock’ messages. Only the owner has access to the private keys, which are needed to unlock or decrypt the communication.

Whenever the user takes part in any end-to-end encrypted communication, the system automatically generates dedicated public and private keys.

If this sounds too complicated, here is a very simple metaphor:

You just bought a new Rolex for your buddy, who lives in Australia. Now, it’s already in a fancy green leather box, so you decide to put the stamp directly on it and send it. There is nothing wrong with that approach as long as you trust that the postal workers won’t steal it.

However, if you decide to put the Rolex box inside another box, hiding the nature of the gift from all interacting parties along the way, then you’ve effectively ensured (for all intents and purposes) that the Rolex is only visible to the intended recipient; when your mate from down under gets a hold of the box, he takes his pair of scissors and ‘decrypts’ the present. Indeed, you’ve ensured ‘end-to-end’ encryption.

You’re already using end-to-end encryption, daily

As we mentioned before, during an E2EE interaction, the server that delivers encrypted data between one "end" and the other "end" is unable to decode and read the data it sends. Even the servers' owners are unable to access the information since it is not saved on the servers themselves, only the "endpoints" (or the devices) of the discussion can decode the data.

If you’re daily using messengers like WhatsApp, iMessage, and Signal (where E2EE is enabled by default) or Telegram, Allo, and Facebook's ‘Secret Conversation’ function (where E2EE can be manually activated) – you’re already using end-to-end encryption.

What's more fascinating is that E2EE communication providers don't require you to trust them. And that’s great!

The fact that their systems can be hacked makes no difference to you because the transported data is encrypted and can only be read by the sender and receiver, which has enraged several organizations. There are known cases when such agencies asked for special ‘backdoors’ that would allow them to decrypt messages.

Why isn’t everything end-to-end encrypted?

End-to-end encryption is theoretically sound, but it lacks flexibility, thus it can't be utilized when the "two ends" that communicate data don't exist, such as with cloud storage.

This is why Zero-Knowledge Encryption was created, a solution that overcomes the problem by hiding the encryption key, even from the storage provider, resulting in an authentication request without the requirement for password exchange.

Moreover, end-to-end encryption does not hide information about the message, such as the date and time it was sent or the people who participated in the conversation. This metadata might provide indications on where the 'end-point' might be – not great if you are the target of a hacker.

The biggest problem, however, is that in reality, we never know whether the communication is end-to-end encrypted. Providers may claim to provide end-to-end encryption when what they truly deliver is encryption-in-transit. The information might be kept on a third-party server that can be accessed by anybody who has access to the server.


While it’s obvious that you shouldn’t be shipping Dave’s Rolex in its fancy green box, the reality is, if you’ve nothing to hide and you’re not transporting something incredibly valuable, encryption-in-transit is up to the job.

End-to-end encryption is a wonderful technology that enables a high level of security when properly implemented. But it doesn't really tackle the main issue – the end-user, still, to this day, needs to trust the system that they’re using to communicate. We hope that the next generation of encryption technologies such as ZKP will be able to change that.